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Research Papers On Divorce And Children

Research Papers On Divorce And Children

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Attachment and Divorce: Family Consequences

Bowlby’s, Ainsworth’s, and Shaver’s research created the understanding that infant styles create a disposition for later behavioral traits. More current research has questioned the significance of how the disruption of the attachment structure (such as in divorce) can affect children’s behaviors throughout life. The research on this topic is contradictory and somewhat inconclusive, with research asserting that either attachment style or external environment has been the main contributor to the behaviors seen in members of divorced families, while many sources stated that it is likely to be a combination of both influences. With either explanation, research concludes that children of divorced families have a disposition to these behaviors, but the end development of behavior and personality is in the hands of the individual and the external factors that are present.

This paper discusses the attachment theory that was developed by Harlow, Bowlby and Ainsworth, which states that attachment is a key aspect to determining personality and behavior throughout an individual’s lifetime. Attachment can be defined as the strong bond that develops first between parent and child, and later in peer and romantic relationships (Bowlby, 1969). Research on divorce and separation of attachment figures has yielded conflicting results. It is often reported that children of divorce have trouble adapting to different stages of their lives because of their experience with broken or detached attachment bonds. These children are said to have no accurate template for successful relationships to replicate in their lives. Other research boasted results that children of divorce adapt to life’s situations and relationships within normal ranges when compared to their peers (Armistead, Forehand, Summers, & Tannenbaum, 1998). Taking this into account, these researchers looked to peer relations, socioeconomic status, general distress, or poor parenting skills to explain the appearance of troublesome behavior or poor grades. The study of all aspects of divorce and attachment is important to how parents, psychologists and teachers approach and understand children of divorced families in order to help them reach their full potential as adults.

Overview of Attachment Theory

The attachment theory has a basis in three theoretical approaches and was first related to primate and infant-mother studies. The three approaches include a psychoanalytic approach, the social learning approach and the ethological theory of attachment (Ainsworth, 1969). Childhood attachment styles, which will be discussed later, are clearly based on the emotional bond between the parent and child, opposed to a biological push to become attached. A study on adopted children shows that positively formed attachments heighten the chance for a well-adjusted life, regardless of the biological relation of the attachment figure (Juffer, Stams & van IJzendoorn, 2002). «Even in a biologically unrelated group of parents and their adopted children from different cultures and ethnic backgrounds, early child-parent relationship characteristics played a significant role in shaping children’s adjustment in middle childhood» (Juffer et al. 2002, p. 814).

Harlow (1958) found that infant monkeys became attached to surrogate mothers when away from their real mothers. The young monkeys preferred heated, cloth covered mothers to wire mothers at any stage of their development. These infant monkeys fared better in many aspects of their lives compared to others, who were provided with only a wire mother. Young primates were more likely to be better adjusted physically, psychologically and socially compared to the monkeys raised by the wire mother. Harlow concluded from his research that the primates are better off in their lives when given more creature comforts, attention and grooming when compared to those who were deprived of these elements (Harlow, 1958).

Harlow (1958) also states that the infant monkeys form a close bond, or attachment to their surrogate cloth mothers. These surrogate mothers are often used as a secure base when opportunities to venture and explore were presented. This was done in order to see how the infants adapted to the surroundings. These infants used their emotional bond to ensure that they would not be harmed when encountering new objects. Also, when a threatening stimulus was presented in this lab experiment, the monkeys retreated to the cloth mothers for safety. This correlates with Ainsworth’s (1967) finding that infants in Uganda use their mothers as a secure base to explore, occasionally leaving her sights, but periodically returning to ensure themselves that she is still there.

Bowlby also conducted research on attachment, recognizing the undeniable bond between infants and their primary care givers. In a variety of cultures that have been studied, the majority of children ranging in age from nine months to one year old have exhibited strong attachment behavior towards their primary care giver. This trend continues until three to four years of age, where the attachment weakens slightly. Hopefully at this point, the child will be secure enough to briefly venture from the mother and begin to develop other interactions and attachments (Bowlby, 1969). The notion that attachment extends throughout the life of an individual is noted in sections of Ainsworth and Bowlby’s literature. Bowlby states that over time, the attachment that infants have for their parents is subtly weakened. The degree to which it is weakened depends on the temperament of the child, which in turn determines how readily new attachment bonds are sought out and formed (Bowlby, 1969). Bowlby also researched the effect that temporary loss of the mother had on human infants, and his findings were expanded upon by the development of the Strange Situation Procedure. Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall (1978) solidified Bowlby’s research on infants and developed three main attachment styles. These styles are based on Ainsworth’s studies of temporary loss of the main attachment figure within a controlled lab setting. This research was called the Strange Situation Procedure. The results showcase the distinct attachment characteristics for each style. Avoidant infants focus their attention mainly on toys that are found around the research room, not directly on the mother. The children here appear to be independent and confidant, but there is intentional avoidance of the mother figure occurring. Once the mother is removed, these infants become detached and avoid the substitute caretaker. When returning, the infant continues to avoid the parent (Ainsworth et al. 1978). Secure infants are genuinely social and explorative within the environment. They are friendly to the mother and caretaker, although can be wary of strangers. Secure infants show signs of anger and sadness when the mother is removed, but eventually adjust to the absence. These infants are generally excited upon the return of the mother (Ainsworth et al. 1978). Lastly, the Anxious or Ambivalent pattern of behavior in infants shows signs of anxiety and hostility towards the parent. The Ambivalent infant is shows aggression toward the mother, but longs to be close to her at the same time. This behavior occurs both before and after the parent returns to the room (Ainsworth et al. 1978).

Hazan and Shaver (1987) continued this line of research and adapted the original attachment styles to patterns of attachment behavior in adult romantic relationships. The same three attachment styles remain true for adjustment and behavior in adult relationships (Hazan, & Shaver, 1987). The securely attached infants matured into adults that were more likely to experience balanced relationships of a desirable duration. The Avoidant infants grew up to have a few short relationships, if any at all. Ambivalent infants became adults who had frequent partners, but often to not allow themselves or their partner to establish the close bond that they would like to form.

Separation From an Attachment Figure

Spouse

Marriage is a highly significant form of attachment bond that has negative consequences when broken. Ainsworth, Bowlby and Shaver all realized and supported the notion that as we grow older, we form new attachments with multiple important figures throughout our lives (Bowlby, 1969). For infants, it is only natural to form attachments with the people who care for them most, in regards to their physiological and emotional needs. As people mature, the old attachments are only severed after great strain, and new attachments are made along the way. New attachments can be friends, co-workers or romantic interests (Bowlby, 1969).

The effects of divorce on the adults who are engulfed in the situation tend to be as stressful as those found in the children. Weiss’ (1976) work showed that the reaction of couples after divorce is similar to the core set of reactions of other examples where attachment is broken, including the reactions of children. Kobak (1999) refers to the Weiss study and states that the availability of an attachment figure in relationships is important to the strength of the bond. When this availability is broken, much like an enhanced Strange Situation Procedure for adults, the security of one spouse or the other is threatened. Berman (1988) noticed from his study of divorced couples, that there is often a strong sense of longing for the estranged partner, and a mourning of the loss is experienced. He also notes that there is a seemingly illogical mix of anger, resentment, and lingering positive feelings for the estranged spouse. Weiss (1976) explains by stating, «This persisting bond to the spouse resembles the attachment bond of children to parents described by Bowlby. Indeed it seems reasonable to surmise that the bond we observe to persist in unhappy marriages is an adult development of childhood attachment» (p. 138). Although the distress caused by divorce is great for both partners, it is easier to see how adults cope with the broken attachment because of their life experiences, maturity, and alternate sources of support. In contrast, children rely mainly on few attachment figures and often lack the coping skills that adults have refined.

Children

Children usually lose a degree of contact with one of their very few attachment figures when a divorce occurs. It is a confusing and stressful time for children, regardless of whether the divorce was amicable or not. Booth, Clarke-Stewart, McCartney, Owen, & Vandell (2000) refer to various national studies when stating that poor school performance, low self-esteem, behavior problems, distress and adjustment difficulties are associated with divorce. In adolescents from divorced families they noted more instances of delinquent behavior, early sex activity and continued academic issues.

In contrast, there have also been comparable studies that detect no unusual behavior or emotional distress occurring from divorce (Armistead et al. 1998). For example, one study involved extensive questionnaires and concluded that the average scores attained from the children were within normal ranges when compared to children of intact families (Armistead et al. 1998). There are many factors that may play into how children’s attachments are altered after a divorce, gender and age being the two most documented variables.

Children’s Adjustment and the Factor of Age. The behavioral reaction of a child to divorce has been shown to correlate with the age group when the divorce or separation occurs. In a controversial study of divorced families, Blakeslee & Wallerstein (1989) state that most children have the same initial feelings. «When their family breaks up, children feel vulnerable, for they fear that their lifeline is in danger of being cut» (p.12). They then go on to discuss the age differences and how the stage at which divorce occurs can impact what behaviors may take place. Blakeslee and Wallerstein (1989) observed, «Little children often have difficulty falling asleep at bedtime or sleeping through the night. Older children may have trouble concentrating at school. Adolescents often act out and get into trouble. Men and women may become depressed or frenetic. Some throw themselves into sexual affairs or immerse themselves in work» (p. xii).

Booth et al. (2000) conducted wide sampling research and realized that the worst initial reactions and behaviors that occur close to the date of the divorce were by the youngest children. In a follow-up study 10 years after the divorce, however, the youngest children were adjusting to their new environments and interactions better than siblings who were older at the time of the divorce.

Children’s Adjustment and the Factor of Sex. Gender difference between children in a divorce plays a very important role in how they adjust. This is true during the time of the divorce and has lasting effects in adult life. Multiple studies have agreed that boys and girls react differently to the reduced contact with a major attachment figure. Boys seem to have an especially difficult time with divorce, causing them to have trouble at school, withdraw from social interactions, or start fights with peers (Blakeslee & Wallerstein, 1989). However, Amato (2001) wrote a follow up study to his earlier meta-analysis findings. In this earlier study, behavior traits were ranked in children with divorced parents and observed negative behaviors. The current study emphasizes that differences are not unique to either boys or girls.

Amato and Keith (1991) found that the deficit in social adjustment associated with marital disruption was greater for boys than for girls. In the 1990s, divorce was associated with greater conduct problems among boys than girls. But the more general conclusion—in the earlier meta-analysis as well as in the present one—is that most of the disadvantages associated with divorce are similar for boys and girls.

These findings imply that the stress on the children is equal, although they may show it in differing ways. Amato’s (2001) follow up study also goes to great lengths to show that current trends in gender differences are not as severe as they were once thought to be.

Children of Divorce: Outcomes

Short-term outcomes for children from divorced families seem to be troubled, but the outcome becomes increasingly optimistic as the children age and mature (Blakeslee & Wallerstein, 1989). The individuals who were interviewed by Wallerstein (1989) showed a strong desire to fix what their parents could not within their own adult lives. They wanted to have stable families and relationships, although many viewed this dream as idealistic, not realistic. «They fear betrayal. They fear abandonment. They fear loss. They draw an inescapable conclusion: Relationships have a high likelihood of being untrustworthy; betrayal and infidelity are probable» (Blakeslee & Wallerstein, 1989, p. 55). Regardless of the long term effects on these particular interviewees, Amato and Keith (1991) concluded after their own assessment that children of highly conflicted families who are not divorced fare worse over time than children with divorced parents. This shows that distance from an attachment figure may be better than living in a troubled environment.

Blakeslee and Wallerstein (1989) observed through their years of interviews with children of divorce an occurrence known as the Sleeper Effect. It is defined as, «a delayed reaction to an event that happened many years earlier» (Blakeslee & Wallerstein, 1989, p. 60). The Sleeper Effect is seen mostly in young women whose parents divorced while they were young children. As previously noted, boys are more likely to act out during the time of divorce, showing their aggression and anger at the situation (Amato and Keith, 1991). Girls on the other hand, seem to keep this frustration inside. This pent up emotion is theorized to show its effects later in the lives of these girls (Blakeslee & Wallerstein, 1989). Its effects are described as, «particularly dangerous because it occurs at the crucial time when many young women make decisions that have long-term implications for their lives. Suddenly overcome by fears and anxieties, they begin to make connections between these feelings and their parents’ divorce» (Blakeslee & Wallerstein, 1989, p. 61).

Most attachment and divorce literature claims attachment is an integral part of the outcomes seen in children from divorced families. However, many of these sources also mention the presence of secondary factors such as income, mother’s employment status, or peer relationships. These factors can also play a key role in determining how a child deals with divorce. For example, Booth et al (2000) summarize their results and say that during the early stages of life, it is perhaps most important that the available parent has good parenting skills. This, they say, is more important to the outcome of the child than the family structure, meaning that parenting practices have a greater effect on children than marital status. They mention that lack of education, depression, low income, and inadequate support from the mother leads to poor adjustment and behavior in young children. Many of these factors can be brought on by a divorce, such as lack of support or attention for children, depression and economic status. The fading stigma of divorce is another universal factor that has been observed to change the well being of these children. Contrary to the past, divorce is not viewed as a degrading occurrence, which once brought social exclusion, shame and the feeling of failure to family members. Similarly, the current volume has increased, and current divorces are not preceded by as much violence and anger as in the past (Amato, 2001).

Conclusion

The somewhat contrasting views in the preceding paper provide a solid, yet inconclusive basis for our understanding of how divorce affects families. Different views have been discussed, including the attachment theory and the effects of family environments. This research has uncovered a wealth of knowledge about how adults and children deal with loss and feelings of abandonment and insecurity. There were many common reactions to divorce that have been observed over these situations, including sadness, anger, insecurity, and lack of trust, which can lead to depression, conduct issues, or unrealistic relationship views. Regardless of these common findings, many children of divorce eventually learn to accept the past and look towards their futures. There are still many avenues that can be taken in the research techniques and literature surrounding divorce and children, but the detrimental findings of the 1970′s seem to have faded, along with (and possibly because of) the social stigmas that have been linked to divorce.

The Breaking of a Family: Children on the Battlefield

Damien W. Cordero
Rochester Institute of Technology

Divorce has become so commonplace in America that it seems to have taken on its own sense of glamour. Few marriages in America these days actually last beyond a few years, because divorce has become such an accepted alternative to working out marital problems. Something important to consider is that although attachment style is very important and can be altered by the breaking up of a marriage, how is attachment style affected in these children by enduring parental struggles? Two important factors to consider in attachment style are (a) how much a child is affected when parents who despise each other «stay together for the kids,» and (b) how much a child’s attachment style is affected when a legal battle that the child has no control over determines his or her fate. A healthy attachment style may not always be brought about by parents remaining together or by the most responsible parent gaining custody of the child.

This paper, though thorough in its research on attachment style and its importance, puts divorce in a negative light as something that generally causes problems within the child despite age. It is important, however, to note the positive effects that divorce may potentially have on children and attachment style. Early on, children develop a sense of how relationships are formed and how they are maintained by simple observation of their parents. Although the parents may not realize they are being watched like hawks, the children’s sense of relationship and attachment is formed by their interactions with each other. Those parents who are very loving and open allow their disposition to show through and it is therefore picked up on by the child.

If marital discourse is allowed to show through to the child, however, attachment style may be affected and altered negatively as well. If, at a young age, the child is subjected to excessive parental arguing or perhaps spousal abuse, these observations will translate into the child’s ideas of what attachment truly is. This is to say that studies have shown that children subjected to parental violence at a young age are more likely to continue this violence into their own relationships, as this is what has been learned in their life. Alhtough divorce can often play an overwhelmingly negative role in attachment style and happiness, sometimes when a child is stuck on the battlefield created by the parents, it is a better alternative to feel loved by one parent than by none. These interactions could serve to alter relationship and attachment more negatively than divorce.

It is also important to discuss the outcome of divorce and how it affects children’s attachment style. Often times, divorces end in ugly custody battles between the parents. During this time, the parents being terribly selfish as to who is most responsible often forget they are being observed at all times. Divorce is hard enough on a young child; suddenly the family is no longer together, and it is a very confusing time. Attachment style can be even more afflicted by court battles in which the child has no control over whom he or she goes with. Not only are children seeing a terrible side of their parents, to whom they were initially attached, but also it becomes a reality for them that they are going to lose one of them as well. This serves to alter attachment style negatively. When a child is disallowed to see a certain parent, what does the child have to look forward to? The attachment that the child has developed over the years is meaningless, as the child has no control over whom he or she can or cannot be attached to. This could lead to negative attachment style resulting in no attachment style at all. Taking these ideas and exploring the further effects of divorce or «staying together for the kids» could serve to reinforce the research on attachment style.

Bowlby’s Ethological Theory: The Beginning of Attachment

Jacqueline L. Hintz
Rochester Institute of Technology

Attachment style in early childhood does indeed have an impact on how children will react to divorce. Their attachment style is often assessed in the strange situation, as Eagan discussed. I was curious to know, however, just exactly how the attachment bond formed in the first place. John Bowlby, in his study of attachment in infancy and toddlerhood, devised the ethological theory, which explained the sequence of events in attachment development. According to Bowlby (1969), the human infant is born with a set of built-in behaviors that keep the parents close to the baby and protect him or her from harm. He believed that the attachment bond has strong biological roots and that feeding is not necessarily the source of attachment between caregiver and baby. Instead, the bond is formed in response to the behaviors and signals of the baby, which prompt the parents to respond. Bowlby proposed that attachment developed in four phases:

  1. The preattachment phase. This phase takes place within the first 6 weeks after birth. Babies display a wide variety of signals (grasping, smiling, crying, and gazing into the eyes of the caregiver) that cause the caregiver to respond, thus forming a bond. Infant encourage the caregiver to remain close to them or to pick them up and hold them, pat them, or talk softly to them. The infant gets to know the smell and voice of the caregiver, and because they have not formed a close attachment yet, the presence of an unfamiliar adult does not upset them.
  • The «attachment in the making» phase. This phase runs from about 6 weeks to 8 months. A difference is seen in the ways infant act toward the caregiver and toward an unfamiliar stranger. Infants interact more positively with their caregiver by laughing and by quieting when they are picked up. The response of the caregiver and other familiar adults makes infants realize that their actions affect others around them. Because of this realization, a sense of trust develops. Even with this trust, however, the baby still will not protest when separated from the caregiver.

  • The phase of «clear-cut» attachment. This phase occurs between 6 months and 2 years. Evidence of attachment to the caregiver is now clear. When the adult must leave, the baby easily becomes upset. This is termed separation anxiety and is accompanied by crying, protesting, and withdrawing from strangers. When the adult returns, the baby will approach the adult and climb all over him or her. The baby also uses the adult as a secure base, to which to return from time to time for emotional support after exploring the environment.

  • Formation of a reciprocal relationship. This phase can occur anywhere from 18 months on. By the end of 2 years, the child has developed language and representation. This allows the child to understand that the parent must leave, and that eventually the parent will return. Separation anxiety decreases dramatically during this time. Also, the child will no longer cling to the parent when he or she returns but will negotiate with the parent instead.

  • Bowlby believed that out of these four stages come a close bond to the caregiver that can also be used as a secure base when the parent is not around. He called this the internal working model. or the set of expectations about the availability of attachment figures and how the child will react under stress when in need of an attachment figure. These internal working models tie in to what Eagan discussed in her paper concerning different kinds of attachment styles. The strange situation can then be put into action to determine what type of attachment style the child has.

    The Decision to Divorce: A Socio-Psychological View of Reasons Other Than Attachment Separation

    Jaclyn E. Siebel
    Rochester Institute of Technology

    Although «Attachment and Divorce: Family Consequences» by Christina E. Eagan discusses the emotional effects of separation from an attachment figure as seen through various strands of attachment theory, there lacked discussion as to why such separations are prone to occur in society and why they have done so more frequently over the last 40 years. In addition, although the types of attachments formed early in life can influence subsequent attachments on into adulthood, new research suggests that the long-term correlation between early and later attachment is low-to-moderate at best. Thus, it is apparent that many other social factors shape the quality of adult marital relationships, as seen in macro- and micro-levels of societal perspective, and it is these factors that might considerably affect decisions to divorce.

    Sundry factors associated with society at large are correlated with changing divorce rates. First among these macro-level factors is that of variations in divorce laws. Whereas divorce used to be hard to obtain because of the nature of the law itself—that one parent had to file suite against the other and the cases filed needed to consist of an extreme measure that made the marriage unbearable in the eyes of the courts—during the 1960s, amendments created the «No-Fault» divorce ruling. This allowed couples with irreconcilable differences to end their marriages more easily. This correlates with the fact that society has changed considerably its views and attitudes towards divorce over the last 45 years (Nakonezny, Shall, & Rodgers, 1995). These attitudes have changed because divorce has become more common. As divorce becomes less controversial, unhappy couples who feel marriage might solve their problems view marriage more as a «semi-permanent» situation and view divorce as «ending a bad decision.» In other words, if partners enter into marriage with the idea that it might end, it is more likely to do so (Nakonezny, Shall, & Rodgers, 1995).

    Other factors considered to be social cues to the reasons for divorce include variations in cultural norms and changes in women’s employment options. Traditionally, women were dependent on men’s ability to support and sustain a marriage and/or family financially. Over the past 60 years, however, an explosion occured in employment of women, especially women with children. This change enabled females more easily to support themselves financially; thus, the desire to rely on a male counterpart diminished. This factor also correlates with a variation in cultural norms. Given that America is a melting pot of cultures, it is apparent in cross-cultural studies that men are more likely to adhere to traditional family values, where as women are more likely to adopt the mainstream views of society, especially on the topic of financial providers in a marriage. This differing view can become a major needle in the pincushion of marriage—and this can often lead to divorce (Nakonezny, Shall, & Rodgers, 1995).

    In accordance with these levels of societal influence, there are also several individual influences within the socio-psychological perspective on divorce that conclude that several micro-level factors are much stronger influences than attachment relationships. Research has shown that persons whose parents have divorced are themselves more likely to divorce. This is because of the negative long term consequences associated with divorce in children and their ability to learn and model their own parents’ behaviors. In relation to this fact, age at marriage has been correlated with divorce rates. The higher the divorce rate, the younger the age at marriage. It seems that these marriages were rushed into without previous cohabitation or planning and so were less successful (Waite & Gallagher, 2000). Additionally, the presence of children in the family situation as well as how similar the partners are to one another correlate with the decision of divorce. Couples who have children are less likely to divorce. This does not mean, however, that these marriages are happy. People seem to stay in unfulfilling relationships and marriages because they feel that it is best for their children, though it is not necessarily best for them (Waite & Gallagher, 2000). Though this might have beneficial results for the children, it has also been seen as a reason for later year divorces, those that occur much later in the course of the marriage.

    Although children can sometimes prevent divorce from occurring, research shows that similarity between the partners in a marriage is by far the most conclusive factor in the decision to divorce. When spouses have similar socioeconomic characteristics, they are much less likely to divorce. Such similarities include age, religion, ethnicity, social status, and income. Couples who share a great deal of dissimilarities face increased stressors and complications because of the variations between one another. They may have different morals and values with respect to relationships. Financial and ethnicity stressors can also cause marital complications (Warner & Seccombe, 2003).

    Thus, although attachment theories may represent one view on the correlation between relationships formed in childhood and adulthood and how these attachments affect and react to divorce, there are other views, including socio-psychological factors that seem to be more prevalent in the correlation between society, personality, and divorce decisions. These factors exhibit correlations between societal influences and individual variations that can cause decisions to divorce, and although there are correlations between attachment styles and divorce effects, they do not explain the reasons for decisions to divorce.

    Attachment Theory or Socio-Psychological Theories? More Research Needed

    Cristina E. Eagan
    Rochester Institute of Technology

    All three peer commentaries added to the understanding of the aspects of attachment and divorce that affect families worldwide. Cordero gave insight to how the social stigma that was once tied to divorce is no longer as major a contributing factor to the outcomes of children. This commentary implied that the original paper cast a one-sided negative light on divorce, when in reality it was an analysis of research that has been conducted over time. The earlier research stated that children of divorce were negatively affected, as was shown in their behaviors. It was also mentioned, however, that more current studies show that children of divorce are not as maladapted as researchers once would have had us think. This commentary goes through and explains different situational experiences that might arise in divorce, which is a great addition to the text. Use of the term «attachment style,» however, does not coincide with the use within the original paper. The commentary uses the term as if it were synonymous with the child’s end behaviors and assumes that divorce can therefore alter (or eliminate?) the «attachment style.» In the original paper, I used the term to describe the predisposition to certain behaviors and how this can then determine the child’s adjustment to either the strange situation procedure or divorce, which is a very different usage from that of the peer commentary.

    The second commentary by Hintz goes in depth about how attachment bonds are formed from the infant’s first 6 weeks to about 2 years of age. I was especially interested to read about the formation of the reciprocal relationship, because it is the beginning of the time during which the child would be consciously interested and aware of the parent. This is a great addition to the understanding of the attachment process and provides a stronger platform for the discussion on how this bond can be affected in the event of a separation or divorce.

    Lastly, Siebel expanded on socio-psychological views on divorce that were only briefly mentioned in the original text. This discussion gives a worthy counter-opinion to the older notion that only attachment bonds have an effect on divorce. This commentary accurately depicts where we are today in this research and gives an overview of the social environment that has fostered the growth of divorce in recent years. The view depicted in this commentary is closest to my own, although it was not discussed in great depth within the context of the paper.

    All three commentaries added a great amount of information that highlights the strengths of the paper and addresses the weaknesses to give readers greater understanding of the topic. The main need that I see after completing this paper is that there is more research needed to address each aspect of divorce so that all theories can be compared, not just attachment theory.

    References

    Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1967). Infancy in Uganda: Infant care and the growth of attachment. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1969). Object relations, attachment and dependency. Child Development, 40, 969-1025.

    Ainsworth, M. D. S. Blehar, M. C. Waters, E. & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Amato, P. R. (2001). Children of divorce in the 1990s: An update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 355-370.

    Amato, P. R. & Keith, B. (1991). Parental divorce and adult well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 53, 43-58.

    Armistead, L. Forehand, R. Summers, P. & Tannenbaum, L. (1998). Parental divorce during early adolescence in Caucasian families: The role of family process variables in predicting the long-term consequences for early adult psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 327-336.

    Berman, W. H. (1988). The role of attachment in the post-divorce experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 496-503.

    Blakeslee, S. & Wallerstein, J. S. (1989). Second chances: Men, women and children a decade after divorce. New York: Ticknor & Fields.

    Booth, C. Clarke-Stewart, K. A. McCartney, K. Owen, M. T. & Vandell, D. L. (2000). Effects of parental separation and divorce on very young children. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 304-326.

    Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Attachment (Vol. 1). New York: Basic.

    Harlow, H. F. (1958). The nature of love. American Psychologist, 13, 573-585.

    Hazan, C. & Shaver, P. R. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511-524.

    Juffer, F. Stams, G. J. J. M. & van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2002). Maternal sensitivity, infant attachment, and temperament in early childhood predict adjustment in middle childhood: The case of adopted children and their biologically unrelated parents. Developmental Psychology, 38, 806-821.

    Kobak, R. (1999). The emotional dynamics of disruptions in attachment relationships. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment (pp. 21-43). New York: Guilford.

    Nakonezny, P. A. Shull, R. D. & Rodgers, J. L. (1995). Divorce rate across the 50 states and its relation to income, education, and religiosity. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 477-488.

    Waite, L. J. & Gallagher, M. (2000). The case for marriage. New York: Doubleday.

    Warner, R. L. & Seccombe, K. (2003). Marriage and families: Relationships in social context. Toronto, Canada: Wadsworth.

    Weiss, R. S. (1976). The emotional impact of marital separation. Journal of Social Issues, 32, 135-145.

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    Filing Divorce Papers

    Filing divorce papers is the first step in the divorce process. States require that you or your spouse meet the residency requirement of that state in order to have jurisdiction over your divorce. The amount of time needed to qualify as a resident varies from state to state, so you will need to check your individual state laws to verify that you meet the requirements.

    If you and your spouse live in different states, it is possible to file in either state if you both meet the residency requirements of that state. Once residency requirements are met and jurisdiction is decided, the divorce petition needs to be completed. This document states the names of the parties involved in the divorce (including children), the proposed property division, child custody and support, and any other information relevant to the divorce.

    From there, the divorce papers are filed in the courthouse of the county that will have jurisdiction over the case, and a copy of the petition is served on your spouse. 

    Since getting the petition started and filing divorce papers can be complicated, many people choose to have a lawyer handle the process for them. Of course, you always have the option of handling the divorce yourself, but be prepared to do a lot of paperwork and research. For more information about how to file for divorce, read over the frequently asked questions below:

    Type of divorce to file:

    Determining the status of filing divorce papers:

    Getting Started

    How do I file for a fast divorce?

    Shell’s Question: How do I file for a fast divorce? I am getting married in two months and need to get this taken care of.

    Brette’s Answer. Two months may be unrealistic depending on how quickly things move in your courts and how easily you can reach your ex. The fastest thing to do is to file for an uncontested divorce, where he completely agrees and signs off on it. You need to determine if there are waiting periods in your state and what the process entails. Visit the website for your state court system or call the court clerk’s office. Good luck.

    Does the petition for dissolution of marriage need to be filed first?

    Sheena’s Question: I filed all my paperwork and went to the court house to see the judge. When I got to the judge I was somehow missing the "petition for dissolution of marriage". And was informed I had to start the paperwork all over. Why?

    Brette’s Answer. This form is what opens the case and it has to served on your spouse for the case to move forward.

    How long do you have to be married before you can get a divorce?

    Question: I have only been married for 2 months, but want to file for a divorce. Will I encounter any problems in doing so?

    Brette’s Answer. No, it doesn’t matter how long you’ve been married. You can seek a divorce at any point.

    Can I get a divorce without notifying my spouse?

    Mona’s Question: I would like to know how a Divorce is obtained when the other party is not notified.

    Brette’s Answer. You must always notify the other party. He must be served with papers notifying him of the divorce and giving him an opportunity to respond. However, the court will permit notification by publication if you are unable to locate him after a reasonable effort. You can do this by publishing a notice in a newspaper or publication chosen by the court and then wait to see if the other party responds. If he doesn’t respond, the case will proceed without him. Click on the following link to read more about how to notify your spouse that a divorce has been started .

    How do I file for divorce if I don’t know where my spouse is?

    Raquel’s Question: I left my husband and have no idea where he is or how to get a hold of him. It’s been over two years. What do I do to get the divorce process started?

    Brette’s Answer: Check your state court website or visit the court clerk’s office. You’ll need to determine what the process is for your state, but generally you would file then get permission from the court to serve him via publication if you cannot locate him. I suggest getting an attorney to handle this for you.

    Do I need child support orders in place before I file for divorce?

    Connie’s Question: Do you have to have a child support order in place to file for a divorce? I am filing divorce myself.

    Brette’s Answer. No. Child support can be ordered as part of the divorce.

    Can I file for divorce even if my spouse doesn’t consent?

    Cary’s Question: Although we both decided on divorce and preferably mediation 5 weeks ago, my husband now says he is not ready and has stopped communicating with me. Can I just file with the court even if he doesn’t respond?

    Brette’s Answer. Yes, one person can file but the other must be served. You need to talk to an attorney in your state about your state’s laws and procedures. You don’t need your spouse’s consent to get a divorce though — if you want one, you can go file now. He can certainly drag things out a bit if he isn’t ready to move forward. Mediation is an excellent idea if you can get him to go.

    Do I need my marriage license to file for a divorce?

    Roseann’s Question: Do I need to show my marriage certificate in order to get a divorce?

    Brette. In most places you do not, however you do need to be able to list the date and place of the marriage.

    Can I still file for divorce if he destroyed our marriage license?

    Donna’s Question: What are my rights if my husband intentionally destroys the marriage license, so my marriage is not recorded?

    Brette’s Answer. If he destroyed your copy, you can just get another copy from the town or city where it was recorded. If he destroyed the original marriage license before it could be filed, you are still legally married and you have witnesses to that fact. You can file for divorce.

    Can I divorce if our foreign marriage license was destroyed?

    Tracy’s Question: My marriage license from Cyprus has been destroyed and my husband has abandoned me for over 5 years. I now live in America. Am I still legally married here with no papers on record? What happens if I want to get married here in America?

    Brette’s Answer. Yes, legally you are still married until you get divorced. You generally do not need to provide the certificate of marriage to obtain a divorce. You just need to know the date and place of the marriage. If you are unable to locate him, you can probably obtain a divorce with authorization from the court to publish the notice of service.

    Which date do we use if we had two wedding ceremonies?

    Dianna’s Question: I was married in Reno in January without anybody knowing it, and then we got married in California where we had the «planned» married in April of the same year. Which date do we use for filing a divorce or does it really matter?

    Brette’s Answer. The second wedding was a renewal of vows. As long as your marriage certificate has the first date, that counts as your legal date of marriage.

    Can a guardian file for divorce on behalf of a disabled person?

    Brenda’s Question: I have a disabled daughter who I have guardianship of. Her husband shot her and she is unable to make any decisions for herself. I do not want anything happen to her and have him obtain any of her social security in the future. How do I as guardian get her divorced?

    Brette. You should be able to file for divorce and sign the papers, listing yourself as legal guardian. I would recommend you consult with an attorney in your state to discuss this.

    Who pays the fees for a divorce?

    April’s Question: I don’t want a divorce, but my husband says he is going to file the papers. I’m not sure what kinds of fees there are, but I don’t think I should have to pay any type of fees if I don’t want a divorce.

    Brette’s Answer. If he files the he pays court fees. You will want to at least consult with an attorney though.

    Do I need to do anything before filing the divorce agreement?

    Kelly Asks: We’ve been separated for 2 years and have a custody agreement already in place. I used an internet site to fill out a divorce agreement, which I’m sure he’ll sign. Is there anything else I need to do before filing this? Is there a complaint that I have to file first?

    Brette’s Answer. Yes, each state has its own requirements, and the agreement you found online might not be acceptable in your state. You should check with a lawyer or go to your state court site and look for a do-it-yourself (sometimes called pro se) packet.

    Can someone else file the divorce papers at the courthouse for me?

    Bianca’s Question: If I already have the papers, & they are filled out by both parties, could my mother or father file my divorce papers for me?

    Brette’s Answer. If you mean can they drop them off at the courthouse, yes, anyone can drop paperwork off.

    Are there any other steps after you file for a divorce?

    Diane’s Question: After you file for a divorce is there a next step?

    Brette’s Answer. Yes, there are many steps. Check with the court clerk for a packet explaining or go to your state court web site. (Note: you can read about the individual steps of divorce and what to expect during The Divorce Process )

    Type of Divorce

    Can I file an uncontested divorce is there’s nothing to divide?

    Liz’s Question: My husband and I have lived apart for nearly two years. We have not been intimate for a year now, live in different places, and have our own lives. Someone said that I can just file uncontested papers at the courthouse? Is that possible? I don’t want anything from him.

    Brette’s Answer. Yes, an uncontested divorce is always an option. You need to contact the clerk’s office in the county you live in and obtain a divorce packet there. You file in the county of your residence. Your state may also have an online divorce help site you can read, on your state court web site. Follow the instructions for filing. Your spouse must always receive notice of the divorce. If he chooses not to respond or appear, the case continues without him.

    Does the property have to be sold if we file «Dissolution of Marriage — With Property»?

    Debbie Asks: My husband and I are in agreement on the division of everything, even the property. There are 2 ways of filing:

    • «Dissolution of Marriage» No Children, No Property & No Liabilities
    • «Dissolution of Marriage» No Children, WITH PROPERTY or Liabilities or Alimony

    My husband wants to file «No Property» because he says that the other filing will cause the court to force sale of the property NOW or it will go to auction. Is this true? I don’t want to get screwed out of my 1/2 of the profits of the property.

    Brette’s Answer. The court will not force you to sell property, particularly if you have a plan for how to divide it. You would be committing perjury to tell the court you have no property. You definitely want your property division included in your decree so that it is enforceable.

    Can I file for a Summary Dissolution due to our long separation?

    Margarita’s Question: I have been legally married for 20 years, however we were separated a month after we were married. He was in the military at the time and we never lived together. Can I file Summary Dissolution given that we separated shortly after the marriage or do I still have to file a regular divorce?

    Brette’s Answer. You need to read the rules set out by your state for the type of divorce you qualify for. If you file the wrong papers, the court will reject them and you can re-file the correct ones, however you’ll have paid fees for both sets of papers, so it’s best to try to get it right.

    What type of divorce should I file if my son died?

    Melinda’s Question: I live in Nebraska and my only son was 18 years old and died. I’ve been separated for 15 years. How do I file for a divorce; with or without children?

    Brette’s Answer. I’m sorry about your son. You would file without since custody does not need to be determined. Good luck.

    Do I list my son on the divorce if his dad has no legal claim?

    Mary’s Question: My son’s father is not on his birth certificate. He was out of the country, but he did have video chats weekly. He came in the country and we got married when my son was 17 months. We separated 5 months later and I am filing for divorce due to abuse. Do I have to list my son in the divorce papers at all, given his father does not have legal rights?

    Brette’s Answer. You don’t have to since he is not legally the father. However, I assume your husband will want contact with your child and you will go to the time and expense of paternity testing and proceedings when you know the outcome. You should discuss your options with your attorney.

    Where to file for divorce

    In which state should I file for a divorce?

    Mary Ellen’s Question: If I got married in one state but now we live in another state, where do I file for a divorce?

    Brette Answers: You file in the state you currently reside in. Be aware though that most states have a residency requirement that requires either that you live there for several months, or that the reason for the divorce arose in the state.

    Does it matter if he files in a different county than I live?

    Crystal’s Question: My husband moved me and the kids into an apartment 200 miles away and told us he was being transferred soon. Now he has just told me he is going to file for divorce. Does it matter if he files in a different county than I live? I am looking into lawyers here where I live, but if he files where he lives will I have to travel for this and get a different lawyer?

    Brette’s Answer. I’m sorry to hear about your predicament. One thing you can do is file in family court where you are now for custody, child support and spousal support. This will help you get on your feet financially. Where the divorce should be heard is a jurisdiction or venue question. If you’re in the same state, then it can likely be heard in either county. Since it would be a hardship for you to travel to his locale, you have a good argument for a transfer to where you are, as long as you meet the residency requirements. Your other option is file yourself for divorce. A lawyer can help you through these decisions. Call the bar association in your area and ask for a referral. Good luck.

    What if we moved to another county after filing for divorce?

    Summer’s Question: The Divorce was filed and we were in the process of sorting the issues out in court, but reconciled after 3 months. We moved to a new county and after 10 months we can’t make it work. What happens when a divorce is just halted in the middle (we didn’t file a postponement)? Can I re-file the divorce in the new county?

    Brette’s Answer. You may need to withdraw from the other county (if it was not dismissed) and file in the new county. You might be able to ask for a transfer of the case, so check with an attorney.

    Where do I file for divorce if my husband lives in another state?

    Sandra’s Question: If you live in a different state than your spouse, can you divorce in the state you live or do you have to be in the same state as your spouse? Also, if he files in New York and I would like to use an attorney from Georgia is this okay?

    Brette’s Answer. You can divorce in the state you live in, if you meet the divorce residency requirements. If he files in one state, you will need an attorney in that state, unless the attorney you hire in GA is licensed to practice in NY and you’re willing to pay for the travel. Good luck.

    Are there obstacles if divorcing spouses live in different states?

    Laurel’s Question: What kind of complications will arise if the party filing for divorce is in one state and the soon-to-be ex lives in a different state? They have a 9 year old, he owes child support, and he is currently living with someone else, who also has a child.

    Brette’s Answer. The issue will be where jurisdiction is. The other things are not really problems, just factors that will affect how child support is calculated.

    Does he have to travel to the state where the divorce is filed?

    Lisa’s Question: How do I get divorced when my husband and I live in two different states? We’ve only been married for a year, and I don’t want anything of his and I’m sure he doesn’t want anything of mine. I just want a divorce. Can we get a divorce without one of us having to fly to another state?

    Brette’s Answer. If you meet the residency requirements of your current state, you can file there. He can file affidavits to indicate his consent.

    Where do I file if my children were born in different states?

    Khouri’s Question: I have lived in my state for about 7 months, and gave birth to our third child while here. My husband still resides in a different state. Does giving birth to a child in another state cause an issue about where I should file?

    Brette’s Answer. It doesn’t matter where your children were born. Residency requirements will govern where you file for divorce.

    Can I file for divorce in the US if I married in another country?

    SJC’s Question: I was married in the Virgin Islands and live in United States now. We do not have a record of our getting married here in the courts. Is it possible to file for an uncontested divorce in the United States?

    Brette’s Answer. Your marriage is recognized in the U.S. and if you meet the residency requirements of the state you live in, you can divorce here.

    Can I file for divorce in the US (where he lives) if I live overseas?

    Jenny’s Question: We were married 8 years ago in China and move to Texas soon afterwards. I went back to China earlier this year for a temporary job and my husband is having an affair. My husband meets Texas residency requirement and I do not. Can I file for divorce in Texas without meeting residency requirement? I appreciate your answer.

    Brette’s Answer. Generally only one of the spouses has to meet the residency requirements to be able to file for divorce, so if your spouse is a resident then the divorce can be heard.

    How do I get divorced he lives in the US and I live in Australia?

    Helen’s Question: I am an Australian citizen who is an exchange student and my husband is an Ohio native. I am now in Australia, married to a US citizen and have no idea what I can do to dissolve my marriage from here. How do I proceed?

    Brette’s Answer. Since you are a citizen of Australia, you should be able to file there, however you’ll have to check to see if you meet requirements, such as having been there long enough and so on.

    How to handle filing divorce papers if you have dual-citizenship

    Andrea’s Question: I have residency in both the United States and Ontario, Canada. Is there one location that is typically better for me to get divorced in?

    Brette’s Answer. You would need consult with an attorney in each location or discuss the matter with an attorney who practices in both locations. You need to get a comparison of what the laws in each location would entitle you to. This would enable you to pick which place would be most favorable for filing divorce papers. Even though you have residency in both places, you need to make sure you meet the residency requirements for divorce in each locale, as this is a different legal concept. » Return to top

    Status of Filing Divorce Papers

    How can I find out if my husband has filed for a divorce?

    Maureen’s Question: How can I find out if my husband filed for divorce?

    Brette’s Answer. You would need to be served with papers for the divorce to be legal. If you’re worried perhaps that you should have been served and wasn’t, go to the court clerk’s office in the county he lives in and ask for a search using your name. You should also check in your county if you live in two different places.

    How can I find out if my lawyer filed the divorce papers?

    Sherry’s Question: How can I find out if my attorney really filed divorce papers without running back and forth to court?

    Brette’s Answer: Call your attorney and ask for a copy of the receipt.

    Help. I filed for divorce but he wasn’t served in the time limit?

    Dina’s Question: My divorce was defective since the affidavit of service indicates service was made 420 days after filing the summons with notice. What can I do now?

    Brette’s Answer. You probably have to start all over and re-file from the beginning. A quick phone consult with an attorney in your area should provide detailed answers. Good luck.

    Why would someone file for divorce, but not serve the petition?

    Andrea’s Question: Why would someone file the petition for divorce, but never have the other spouse served? Does the paperwork need to be served to the spouse and recorded in the court for a divorce to proceed?

    Brette’s Answer. Papers do have to be served for a case to continue. There are many reasons a person might file and then not follow through — running out of money, changing their mind, being unsure how to handle service and so on.

    Can I make him file the completed divorce papers?

    Jenn’s Question: My husband downloaded the divorce papers off of the internet, and gave them to me to sign. I took the papers in and had them notarized, and gave them back, 7 months ago. He has yet to file them, and I am getting married soon, and need this done. Can I make him file the papers, or should I retain an attorney and do it myself?

    Brette’s Answer: You can’t make him file them. If he does not pursue the case, it can technically be dismissed, but you can counter sue for divorce to keep it going. You should talk to your attorney to determine if it makes sense in your state to have the first case dismissed and file a new one in which he will default or convert the current case. I wouldn’t plan a wedding yet — a divorce can take a long time if he contests it. Good luck.

    Can he file for divorce if I’ve already filed and served him papers?

    Mele’s Question: Can my husband file for divorce after he’s already been served with the divorce papers I filed?

    Brette’s Answer. If you have already opened a case, in most states he can file another one, but you can ask to have the case dismissed.

    Will my case have to be dismissed if he filed first?

    Susan’s Question: My husband filed first then I did. He was served first and then I was. Now his attorney is asking my attorney to dismiss my case and move it to the county where my husband’s attorney filed. Can they do that?

    Brette’s Answer. One of the cases is going to have to be withdrawn and it’s a matter of negotiating which. Since they filed first that seems to be an obvious solution, but you should talk to your attorney about the options.

    Can he re-file as the plaintiff if I already filed and we’re negotiating?

    Linda’s Question: I filed for divorce citing irreconcilable differences. 8 months into negotiating the agreement, my husband wants to re-file as the plaintiff and cite adultery. Is this possible?

    Brette. He can file a cross-petition but he can’t make you withdraw yours.

    Can I file for divorce in my home state even though my husband has already filed in another state?

    Maggie’s Question: My soon-to-be ex has filed for a divorce in the state that he is currently living in, but the courts have kicked back our uncontested cased for over a year. I have signed the papers and I want to have this finalized. Can I go ahead and file for divorce in my home state, even though the original divorce is being processed in another state?

    Brette’s Answer. Probably not. If there is a case already in progress in another state where there is jurisdiction it is unlikely your state would let you move forward. You can focus on getting the divorce finalized where it is already in progress. It sounds like you have much of the work done already. If you’re frustrated with the process you could always file a counter-petition in the same case to try to get things to move forward. Find out what the problem is with the current paperwork and work to get it resolved. It might be worth a few hundred dollars to consult with an attorney who could take a look at it and tell you what’s wrong.

    What if one spouse refuses to sign after divorce papers are filed?

    Jade’s Question: What happens when one spouse files for divorce and the other spouse refuses to sign or accept the divorce?

    Brette’s Answer. The case moves forward. The judge decides if there will be a divorce or not.

    What can I do if filed for a divorce, but now want to stop it?

    June’s Question: I filed for a divorce and my husband received the service, but completed it incorrectly, so the court sent it back to him. I now want to stop the divorce. How do I do this, as I don’t have any legal representation?

    Brette’s Answer. Call the court clerk where the divorce petition was filed and ask what procedure to follow to withdraw the case.

    Can I get my filing fee back if I change my mind about divorce?

    Ester’s Question: Is it possible to get my filing fee back if I changed my mind about getting a divorce? I’ve already filed and paid the $408 CASH.

    Brette’s Answer. Check with the court clerk, but in general, no. The fee is for the processing and if you change your mind you can’t get it back.

    Do I need to re-file or can we just sign the divorce papers filed 3 years ago?

    Nicole’s Question: I filed for a divorce 3 years ago and served my husband with papers. He did nothing after that and we tried to work it out, but never notified the courts of this. I have received nothing from the courts and we are now separated and want a divorce. He says the divorce is not valid anymore. We have a case number. Do I need to file another divorce or can he just go to the court house and sign the papers filed three years ago?

    Brette’s Answer. A case will usually be dismissed after a certain period of time if it isn’t moving forward. Call the court clerk’s office and ask.

    What can I do if I found mistakes after I filed for a divorce?

    Brenda’s Question: I just notice I put some inaccurate information in my divorce papers. My husband has been already served. How can I correct it?

    Brette. You can simply amend the papers you filed with the correct information by submitting a new version. Call the court clerk and ask how to revise or amend papers.

    Can the petitioner change the separation date after filing?

    Dawn’s Question: If the petitioner filed original papers with the court with date of separation, how is it possible that the petitioner can change their mind and claim a new date of separation?

    Brette’s Answer. It’s possible to amend a petition if the information in it is not believed to be correct or is up for debate. »Return to top

    What does the «filing date» refer to in the divorce records?

    Danelle’s Question: In the state of CA, what does the «filing date» refer to in the divorce records? Is it the date the divorce was FINALIZED, or the date the process began (papers served to respondent)?

    Brette’s Answer. I’m unable to answer state specific questions so you need to check state laws to be sure, but in general filing date usually refers to the date the divorce is commenced.

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    The Effects of Divorce on Children — Divorce is becoming a worldwide phenomenon, significantly affecting children’s well-being. It radically changes their future causing detrimental effects. According to (Julio Cáceres-Delpiano and Eugenio Giolito, 2008) nearly 50% of marriages end with divorce. 90% of children who lived in the USA in the 1960s stayed with their own biological parents, whereas today it makes up only 40% (Hetherington, E. Mavis, and Margaret Stanley-Hagan, 1999). Such an unfavorable problem has been increasing, because in 1969, the legislation of California State changed the divorce laws, where spouses could leave without providing causes (Child Study Center, 2001). [tags: Impact of Divorce on Children and Adolescents]
    . 3 Works Cited

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    The Impact of Divorce on a Teenager — All over the world, parents decide to divorce and this leaves children hurt and confused. The children may lose contact with one parent or they might decide to makes some bad decisions in their life due to the feeling of neglect. Some of the bad choices could be mental health disorders and struggling in academics. There are impacts on teens that could be short term but there are also long term effects too, because most of them look up to their parents as role models. (decent statement of theme) Family clearly impacts teenagers, especially a divorce. [tags: Impact of Divorce on Children]

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    The Effects of Divorce on Children — Introduction In America, about one in every two marriages will end in divorce. Around 60% of those divorcing couples have children. (Cherlin, 2012). Half of the marriages in America end in divorce, and more than half of those couples have children, which means that about every other divorce that is filed in America, a child is impacted. Between 850,000 and 950,000 divorces occur each year. (National Center for Health Statistics, CDC. 2014). Given that roughly 60% of those divorcing couples have at least one child, at least 510,000 children are affected a year. [tags: Divorce and Adolescent Depression]
    . 6 Works Cited

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    Effects of Divorce on Children — When two people marry, they are seemingly deciding that they will be together until death separates them. When those two married people then decide to start a family together, that further solidifies the notion that they will be together as a whole family unit. Unfortunately, some things do not always work out as hoped and planned for them to, and marriages fall apart. Statistics show that 50% of marriages end in divorce. It is an even more unfortunate situation when there are children involved. [tags: Divorce, stress, marriage]
    . 5 Works Cited

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    Overview of Divorce in Canada — Introduction A century ago, divorce was nearly non-existent due to the cultural and religious pressures placed upon married couples. Though over time Canadians have generally become more tolerate of what was once considered ‘mortal sin’, marital separation and divorce still remain very taboo topics in society. Political leaders are frowned upon when their marriages’ crumble, religions isolate and shun those who break their martial vows and people continue to look down on those who proceed to legally separate their households. [tags: social issues, divorce]
    . 11 Works Cited

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    The Shocking Truths of Divorce — An absence of a parent or a parent’s separation, divorce, when a child is developing, may affect the child’s future relationships. “Evidence shows that, on average, children who have experienced parental divorce score somewhat lower than children in first-marriage families on measures of social development, emotional well-being, self-concept, academic performance, educational attainment, and physical health” (Demo, Supple) Since there are high rates of divorce in America, I decided to write about it. [tags: Divorce Statistics Family]
    . 5 Works Cited

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    Trends of Marriage and Divorce — Marriage is one of the oldest cultural institutions in the world. Its status has changed drastically over the years, and in the last few decades alone has gone from being a social expectation to simply an option for most people. In the 1920s, marriage was generally considered an expectation for all young women, lest they dry up like cacti before they bore children. Today, marriage is generally recognized as a commitment that may satisfy some, though many choose to forgo the process. The differences between the cultural perception of marriage in the “Roaring Twenties” compared to today have manifested themselves in many different ways. [tags: Marriage History, Divorce Rates]
    . 5 Works Cited

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    Divorce and Its Impact on Cpuples and Children — The term divorce is a legal term that denotes the separation of two individuals in a legal manner that was once connected to each other as a result of marriage. Divorce can be a lifetime separation between couples and can even be a limited time separation between couples. Recently, the world has witnessed a surge in the number of divorces taking place and the occurrence of this event is even at its peak in the United States. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention reported during the period of 2011, that out of every 1000 individuals, almost 3.6 individuals have experienced divorce (cdc.gov, 2013). [tags: marriages, family issues, divorce]
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    Divorce: How Hard should it be to Obtain? — Divorce is a word that everyone knows very well, no matter what the age. These days, everyone knows at least one person that has either been in a divorce or whose parents are divorced. Today, about 50% of all marriages end in divorce(‘No-Fault’ Divorce, 2004). Between the time that half of those couples get married and divorced, many of them had children. By 2004, «one in four children lived in single-parent homes»(‘No-Fault’ Divorce, 2004). After the divorce, not only are the adults hurting, but the children are also. [tags: social issues, no-fault divorce]
    . 5 Works Cited

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    The Impact of Divorce on Young Children and Adolescents — For the past decades, divorce has been increasing dramatically throughout the United States; it is a common issue in this society. Approximately one million children experience divorce or parental separation every year(Shinoda, Kevin Seiji, 2001, La Mirada, pg. 9). According the 2000 census data, about 28% of divorce or separated parents, have at least one children who is under age of 6(Kim Leon Jul. 2003 pg. 258). Also, slightly more than half of all divorced children are under the age of 18, and about 40% of all children will experience divorce or parental separation before reaching adulthood(Shinoda, Kevin Seiji, 2001, La Mirada, pg. [tags: Effects Of Divorce On Adolescents]
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    Children of Divorce and the Related Behavioral Issues — Over the last 70 years, divorce has become a normal occurrence in homes across the country. Even children whose parents are married can be exposed to divorce in a number of places: television, newspapers, magazines, school, and their friends. Those children who are put through the agonizing experience of a divorce are far more likely to have physical and emotional problems compared to those living in a home with happily married parents. One of the most documented changes in children from before and after divorce are behavioral problems. [tags: Divorce, Parents, Behavioral Problems]
    . 4 Works Cited

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    Divorce — The Movie — Divorce — The Movie In society today, divorce is common with approximately 60% of marriages not lasting. Prior to their parents splitting up, children struggle with how to thrive in an environment where their parents are constantly arguing. This is the backdrop for my screenplay. One of the protagonists, Kristi, is an artist who goes running for several hours every night, returning after midnight when she is certain that her parents are asleep. She is a thoughtful and taciturn character who thinks that she is to blame for the problems that her parents are experiencing. [tags: Divorce Essays]

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    How a Divorce Can Affect a Child’s Life — Is it fair for a child to have multiple parents. Are you aware of the repercussions a divorce can trigger in a Childs life. Why bring a child into the world with a family that is unsteady. Is it the adults whom are causing children to commit suicide, and run away from home. Is it fair for children to suffer due to our parents disagreements. Divorces are destructive towards the children, and more parents should attempt to exhaust options before choosing this avenue. Divorced parents think their own happiness is more important than their child/children (Divorce Parents Decry Own Selfishness 6). [tags: divorce, marriage, family issues]
    . 15 Works Cited

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    The Effect of Money on Frequency of Divorce — Missing Figures INTRODUCTION Despite the fact that divorce is discussed in almost any sociology or anthropology book, no unified explanations for family instability are available. Levinson and Malone (1980: 69) state that «anthropologists have offered little in the way of trustworthy, universal explanations for divorce.» The differences in cultures, traditions, and practices among societies make it almost impossible to offer general explanations for family instability. The widely held belief is that when a significant amount of money or property is exchanged, the marriage is more stable. [tags: Marriage Divorce]
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    How Divorce is Affecting the American Culture — The effects of divorce on the American culture are immense. Social scientists have been studying these effects for many years now. The studies are continuing to confirm that the climbing rate of divorce in the American culture is hurting the society and also frequently devastating the lives of many American children. There are many areas in which divorce has a negative effect in the life of a child or an adult. Many of these effects also directly correlate to the effect on a society. However, there is hope. [tags: Divorce, American Culture, USA, marriage, children]
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    Cause and Effects of Divorce — What is a marriage. According to Webster’s dictionary,” marriage is an institution whereby men and women are joined in a special kind of social and legal dependence for the purpose of founding and maintaining a family. Marriage is also an intimate or close union.” Marriages don’t always last and result in divorces. Two of the leading causes of a divorce are lack of foundation and lack of communication. Almost half of American marriages now end in divorce. One cause of marriages ending in divorce is lack of foundation. [tags: Marriage Divorce]

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    Divorce Prevention: Traditional Marriage and Covenant Marriage License — Divorces between married couples has adapted to the American lifestyle. Americans debate every year on the best way to lower divorce rates, but instead of reaching a level ground more disputes occur. Divorce rates have reached an extreme high in America through the current times. Divorce harms the family’s mental being, not just the couple, but also the children that are being separated. While, successful marriages have extremely excellent benefits for the couples and also the children. Law reforms in the marriage system are essential to lower the extremely high divorce rates in America. [tags: louisiana, american lifstyle, divorce rates]
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    Adolescents and Divorce — Adolescence is a period of turmoil and change for youngsters. During this time in their lives, adolescents experience many types of stresses. Some of these stresses include identity crisis, relationships with family members and friends, and the physical changes that take place. Adolescence is a very trying time and it can be heightened when divorce is an additional problem to be dealt with. Divorce only adds to the turmoil and hardships of adolescence. The effects of a divorce can leave an individual feeling lonely and at fault for the break up of their parents. [tags: Teenagers Impact Divorce Essays]
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    The Reality of Divorce in American Society — The Reality of Divorce in American Society As with most life transitions, divorce can be liberating, depressing, frustrating, or traumatic to any person who experiences it. Perhaps the most painful part on the process of divorce is when the children get involved and when they all get trapped in the situation. These children may suffer significant losses in their lives and unless the situation can be handled in a civil manner, they will become prone to the psychological torment that could affect them for the rest of their lives. [tags: Divorce Marriage Relationships Essays]

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    Divorce in the United States — Divorce in the United States Divorce involves the recognition that a marriage has hopelessly failed and that at least one of the partners has no desire to continue the marital relationship. Divorce legally dissolves a marriage, and permits the partners to remarry if they choose. Divorce differs from an annulment, which declares a marriage invalid because of some flaw in the contract. The early American settlers brought with them three different views on divorce: 1) the Roman Catholic view that marriage was a sacrament and that there could be no divorce; 2) the English view that divorce was a legislative matter; and 3) the Protestant view that marriage and divorce were secular matters. [tags: Divorce Marriage Relationships Essays]
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    Effects of Divorce on Children — The Effects of Divorce on Children The statistics for divorce in the 1990′s suggest that nearly sixty percent of marriages end in divorce. Given this startling figure, the presumption can be made that many children will experience some effects caused by the life-changing event called divorce. What is it exactly about divorce that causes negative consequences for these children. In what ways will these children be affected. Will these effects show outwardly. The unsettling fact is: young children of divorced parents face great psychological challenges due to the environmental conditions and changes associated with divorce (Wolchik and Karoly 45). [tags: Divorce Marriage Psychology Essays]
    . 5 Works Cited

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    Factors Associated with Divorce — Factors Associated with Divorce Research shows there are 4 major factors that increase the likelihood of divorce A. Divorce Caused By Age At Marriage 1. As age when married decreases, likelihood of divorce increases — Couples under the age of 18 are much more likely to divorce than couples who marry at any later age 2. Younger Couples Are: — Unprepared for marriage — Unaware of what is expected of them — Not mature enough to handle responsibilities 3. Drawbacks — The younger you are the less dating experience you’ve had — Not sure what you really value in a partner — Being young they may get bored and prefer a new marriage as opposed to their current one — Young cou. [tags: Divorce Marriage Relationships Essays]

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    The Divorce Rate and Women in the Workplace — The Divorce Rate and Women in the Workplace Marriage Most ancient societies needed a source environment for the upholding of the species and a system of rules to handle the granting of property rights. The institution of marriage handled both of these needs. Some varieties of marriage are Polygamy- one man, several wives or one woman, several husbands. Polygyny- one man, several wives. Polyandry- one woman, several husbands. Endogamy- requirement to marry someone who belongs to his or her own group. [tags: Divorce Society Marriage Essays Papers]
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    Children and How They are Affected by Divorce — Children and How They are Affected by Divorce In years past, the American Dream for most young girls’ is to grow up and be married to Prince Charming and to “Live Happily Ever After!” Although this may be expected — it is rarely fulfilled. Marriage is the legal and binding union between a man and woman. Yet when couples marry, they vow to stay by their partner’s side ‘till death do us part.’ Currently that vow seems to have little or no value in today’s society. The current statistics for survival of marriage are quite grim. [tags: Cause Effect Divorce Marriage Essays]
    . 7 Works Cited

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    Divorce and Its Effects on Children — Divorce in our society has become increasingly common. Fifty percent of all marriages will end in divorce and each year 2 million children are newly introduced to their parents separation, (French). Demographers predict that by the beginning of the next decade the majority of the youngsters under 18 will spend part of their childhood in single-parent families, many created by divorce. During this confusing period of turmoil and high emotional intensity, the child must attempt to understand a complex series of events, to restructure numerous assumptions and expectations about themselves and their world. [tags: Divorce Children Marriage Kids Essays]
    . 7 Works Cited

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    Use of Situational Irony in The Season of Divorce — Use of Situational Irony in The Season of Divorce John Cheever’s «The Season of Divorce» could be viewed as nothing more than a story of hopeless love, a tale of something that could never be. It is through the author’s use of tone in the story that a theme deeper than simple forbidden desire is conveyed. The situation between Ethyl and her husband, the narrator, reflects one of hidden resentment; a product of imposed societal stresses. Through the use of situational irony, Cheever gives the reader a feeling of instability and hopelessness found in a seemingly secure setting, this being a marriage of rather longstanding. [tags: Season of Divorce Essays]

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    Effect of Divorce on Children: What About The Kids? by Judith S. Wallerstein and Sandra Blakeslee — While divorce gives parents a novel opportunity to begin a new life, it leads to an unfortunate twist in lifestyle for the children. In “What About The Kids. Raising Your Children Before, During, and After Divorce” Judith S. Wallerstein, Ph.D. a psychologist who spent 25 years of her life studying the effects of divorce on children, and Sandra Blakeslee, a scientist writer who has spent nearly all of her profession writing for New York Times, wrote, “Each decision to divorce begins a long journey that holds surprising, unexpected turns.”. [tags: slipt in two, divorce]
    . 6 Works Cited

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    The Effect of Divorce on Children’s Learning and Behavior — The Effect of Divorce on Children’s Learning and Behavior The effect of divorce on children?s learning and behavior is a major problem in today’s society. Everyday, children everywhere deal with this issue. Nowhere is this displayed more prevalently than in our schools. Divorce hurts children more than parents realize. By the time they turn 18, approximately fifty to sixty percent of all children in the United States have been affected by divorce (Miller, 1). Divorce-related problems (e.g. visitation, child support, parental custody) can be ongoing sources of stress to children, even up to eight years after the initial separation. [tags: Divorce Kids Marriage Psychology Essays]
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    Divorce by Ivan Klima — Divorce by Ivan Klima In the short story entitled “Divorce” by Ivan Klima a judge makes an important decision that will affect him for the rest of his life. The decision maybe by this man, a Judge named Martin Vacek was for the better. Loyalty and dedication is more important than lust and romance. Judge Martin Vacek displayed true honorability when he decided to stay with his wife rather than go off with a younger, more attractive, recently divorced woman. His decision completely ignored his inner most feelings. [tags: Divorce Ivan Klima Short Stories Essays]

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    The Manifestation of Pride in The Great Divorce by C.S. Lewis — The Manifestation of Pride in The Great Divorce by C.S. Lewis The Great Divorce by C.S. Lewis suggests that choices made on earth have a consequential effect towards our acceptance into heaven or our plummet into hell. In this book pride manifests itself in a hundred subtle ways as souls whine about perceived injustices or irrational motives. Thankfully, a few tourists do humble themselves, become transformed into marvelously real beings, and remain in heaven. But most don’t, about which the great Scottish author George MacDonald, Lewis’ heavenly guide, says, “They may not be rejecting the truth of heaven now. [tags: The Great Divorce C.S. Lewis Essays]

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    Heaven and Hell Divided in C. S. Lewis’s The Great Divorce — Heaven and Hell Divided in C. S. Lewis’s The Great Divorce C. S. Lewis is known throughout the world for his ability to tuck theology into fantasy. He’s the author of many books such as the Chronicles of Narnia, The Screwtape Letters and Mere Christianity. One of his less popular books, but one that he considered among his favorites, was The Great Divorce. The title refers to the separation of Heaven and Hell. Although a relatively thin book, it is packed with thought provoking questions concerning ones faith. [tags: Lewis Great Divorce]

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    Children from Divorced Families — Divorce rates in America are around 50 percent. More than half of these divorces involve children under 18. Therefore about 40 percent of children in the world will be affected by divorce. About one in three children will live in a household that involves a step parent. (SandfordM. Portnoy) Though its controversial, children that are affected by divorce will develop some kind of psycological condition. Academic,behavior and even health all play a factor in divorce. It is also controversial on how long these conditions will last in children. [tags: divorce, parenting, ]

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    Divorces Have Negative Effects on Children — Introduction In our nation divorce is a big part of life. Divorce is the legal dissolution of marriage or the termination of an existing relationship or union. Divorce starts with two adults but always ends up impacting the children in the biggest way. Sons and daughters of divorce often feel confused and abandoned, lose their family structure, and experience identity crisis. Many parents never bother to think of how divorce will affect their children. Children are impacted by divorce in multiple ways. [tags: Divorce Hurts Children]
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    The Reality of Divorce — Divorce rates have risen dramatically over the past few decades. Married couples separate, and, although it is more difficult for some, they move on, with no strings attached. Is it possible for the children of those couples to move on so easily. Some may believe that everyone involved in the divorce will eventually recover. This belief is misguided. Children who suffer through their parents’ divorce experience emotional and behavioral problems as well as “sleeper” effects that may break out later on in their lives. [tags: marriage, children, sleeper effects, family]
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    The Effects of Divorce — The Effects of Divorce Relationships are all about give and take, and to maintain them you must be willing to do the work. Today, dissolution of marriage is being used as the easy way out when couples can no longer agree. When couples decide to divorce, emotions run rampant and the effects on the family are not always considered. Divorce has become a debatable topic because of the loss of family structure and foundation. For some people, the consequences of divorce are devastating, and for others it means freedom. [tags: Relationships]
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    The Effects of Divorce — Divorce has become a serious issue in modern day society for children and women. On the other hand, in this day in age, many married couples are separating at higher rates than in the past and married couples are becoming the minorities. Children are effected socially, emotionally, economically and in their ability to learn. Children who are accustomed to living with both parents in the same household tend to be more effected by divorce than those who are not accustomed to their parents living in the same household. [tags: women, children, father, social well-being]
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    Making Children A Priority — One of the worst things you could say to your child or children about divorce or separation is that it is the other’s fault, with Mom placing the blame on Dad, or vice versa. When a couple decides to divorce, it is the end of their relationship, and while each partner may go their separate way, when there are children involved it becomes an entirely different situation. While the parents may be divorcing each other, they are not divorcing their kids, and both parents still have an obligation to their children. [tags: Divorce]

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    The Consequences of Divorce — I find the topic of divorce not to be as dichotomous as some might see. I acknowledge the requisites required to define, and those existent to allow the reprehensible in the institution of marriage, as un-debated. There are many factors and premises that the pros or cons of marriage could be argued on, so I will have to pick one. I will argue against taking the action of divorce as anything but a last resort as detrimental to solving some of the few underlying tensions that contribute to its dilemma. [tags: Arguments on Marriage]

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    My Divorced Parents: Very Special People — Everyone has two very special people in their life. People that give their time, energy and money to make sure their beloved is well taken care of and given every opportunity to have a successful life and achieve their dreams. At times, selflessness gives a whole new meaning to these two people. In my life, these two people are my parents. My parents have been divorced for about 15 years. This has not always been the easiest situation for me to face. However, regardless of them being divorced they have continued to show their love towards me in different ways. [tags: personal experience, divorce]
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    Adults and Divorce — Introduction There has been reduction in available job opportunities as the global population continues to rise year-after-after, and there has been lack of communication and increase in stress between the spouses who decide to culminate their holy marriage by filing for divorce in the judicial courts. It is shocking to learn that out of a population of 1,000 people, there are 6.4 marriages and 3.4 divorces, which means that 50% of marriages in the United States of America result into a divorce (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010). [tags: Family Psychology ]
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    Issues in Divorce — During the Medieval times, when the Catholic Church was as influential as it has ever been, marriages very rarely ended up in divorce. There were many married couples who would end up separated and live apart, but due to the rules of many religions, very few actually went through and became divorced. In present times, things are very different. Divorce rates have continued to climb through the centuries as religion has had less of a pull on people’s lives. More and more couples have entered into marriages that simply could not last for the long-term. [tags: Family Relationships]
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    Divorce in Okahoma — Usually the thought of marriage comes with a connotation of spending forever with a special person, however, today divorce is at an all time high. Oklahoma in particular has a higher than average divorce rate. With divorce affecting all aspects of life, there is a significant effort to reduce these numbers. Everything should be done to educate couples and reduce the divorce rate in Oklahoma. The human race began the practice of marriage in the time of the Egyptians. At this time marriage was about inheritance and property. [tags: social issues, true love]
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    Divorce in America — The High Divorce Rate in the United States Marriage is a commitment that seems to be hard to keep. The social standards expected of an individual in the United States alone will cause some to divorce. Influence from media, billboard ads, and “get it any way you want it” has become the motto in the land of the free. We have become a quick fix country without any consideration of the physiological effects of marriage and divorce. The overwhelmingly high divorce rate in America is caused from a lack of moral beliefs and marital expectations. [tags: Analytical, Informative]

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    Divorce and Homosexuals — In an article titled, “I’ve Been Divorced Four Times, But Homosexuals Are the Ones Destroying Marriage,” published in February of 2014, blogger Matt Walsh intends to move anyone who advocates for “traditional marriage” to focus their attention on preventing divorce instead of opposing gay marriage. The title is mocking the hypocrisy of some “traditional marriage” advocates who are serial divorcee supposedly doing everything they can to preserve the sanctity of marriage. The author believes in what is commonly called “traditional marriage,” though the term is considered a historically misleading term by some. [tags: traditional marriage, church]
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    Divorce and Remarriage — Divorce and Remarriage For those who believe the Bible is the word of God, and live by the standard that God has made for man. It is easy to see that this country is far from living from the way God would have us. There are many immoral acts being pushed on society and forcing people to accept them. Things like abortion, immodesty, and homosexuality.These things are being accepted by more and more people as time goes by. With horrible acts of murder and perversion as just listed above, divorce is one that needs to be listed among them. [tags: God, Law of Moses, Bible]

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    Divorce or Annulment — In the failure of marriage, most couples nowadays prefer to have a divorce or annulment. For them, separation is a lot easier than forcing a relationship to work. However, the consequences of divorce appear to have greater impacts on children and not just on the couple. The custody of the children is usually brought into court settlements to determine which party, whether the mother’s or the father’s, qualifies for custody. In this regard, lawyers require help from mental health experts who would make evaluations of both parties. [tags: Social Issues, Custody of the Children]

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    Divorce Laws in The United States — “Divorce is a decree by a court that a valid marriage no longer exists. It leaves both parties free to remarry. The court will award custody, divide property, and order spousal and child support” (The American Bar Association 71). “…till death do us part” is almost always heard at wedding ceremonies. But all too often this phrase does not represent its true meaning. Between 1960 and 1999 the divorce rate in the United States tripled (Porterfield vii). Out of all first time marriages, 41% end in divorce (Divorce Rate). [tags: Law]
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    Southern Blacks and The Issue of Divorce — I hate divorce” says the Lord God of Israel (Kings James Bible, 1996) Divorce is the legal severing of marital bonds and is on the rise in North America. In 2011, divorce in Blacks or African Americans is at an all-time high. Divorce has many implications for a society. If current trends continue, researches postulated that if African American children were not born outside of wedlock, the African American population would fail to reproduce itself and would rapidly die off. Blacks who are married live longer, are wealthier, happier, and choose healthy behaviors compared to Blacks who are divorced. [tags: Family Issues]
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    Impact of Parental Divorce on Children — The Effects of Divorce on children A Review of the Literature Introduction Background In today’s society, there are many different types of families. Some include parents, single families, stepfamilies and a variety of others. Along with these different varieties of families there is one common incident that can cause the family structure to change. Divorce is an unplanned event in a family’s life. It is something that affects each member of a family at different times and in different ways. About half of all marriages will end in divorce, leaving one million children each year to deal with the process of divorce (Martin et aI, 2003). [tags: Separation, Desintegration, Family]
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    The effects of parents’ divorce on children — Divorce and life with each passing year becomes a widespread phenomenon among young people. According to () nowadays approximately 50% of marriages end with divorce. 90% of children, who lived in the USA in the 1960s stayed with their own biological, married parents, whereas today it makes up only 40% (Child Study Center, 2001). Such an unfavorable problem has been increasing, because in 1969 the legislation of California State changed the divorce laws, where spouses could separate without providing cause (Child Study Center, 2001). [tags: Single Parent Families, Education]

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    The Effects of Divorce in American Culture — The effects of divorce on the American culture are immense. Social scientists have been studying these effects for many years now. The studies are continuing to confirm that the climbing rate of divorce in the American culture is hurting the society and also frequently devastating the lives of many American children. More often than not people decide to get a divorce before they really think about the effects of divorce. People usually decide to get a divorce based on emotion rather than logic which can hinder their long term happiness. [tags: child and family studies]
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    Mandatory Classes for Children of Divorce — A 7-year-old little girl was watching cartoons in living with her little brother while their parents showered. Her 6-year-old brother walked into the kitchen and shortly after his sister heard him making peculiar sounds. After going to check on him she discovered that he had taken his own life by removing his belt and hanging him from the very same refrigerator they once grabbed snacks from. Rushing from the shower his mother and stepfather arrived to admit C.P.R but it was too late. After further research and investigation into why this child would go as far as to commit suicide, results from the parents, school officials and friends showed one thing that could have pushed him to this extre. [tags: classes, counseling]
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    The Rise in the Divorce Rate — The topic that I have chosen to do my research on is the rise in the divorce rate. The reason I have chosen this topic is because I myself have recently been through a divorce. I think everyone by now has heard that fifty-percent of marriages now a days end in divorce. So after going through a divorce myself I would like to know why that is.” Today 59% of the population is married down from 62% in 1990 and 72% in 1970. One of the first things I looked at was the average length of a marriage. I found that that average length of first marriages that end in divorce for males is 7.8 years and 7.9 for females. [tags: Family Psychology ]
    . 2 Works Cited

    1325 words
    (3.8 pages)

    Divorce: Ensuring the Wellbeing of a Child — For my research, I have chosen to explore the discussions regarding the various ways in which children are affected by the divorce of their parents. Divorce is a hard time for all parties involved, but many people are unaware of the full extent of issues that it can cause for those that are not directly involved- the children. Also, many of the negative affects divorce presents can, in fact, persist and become long-term. Most parents realize that their separation takes a toll on their children, but typically, adults are unaware of the ways that their children can potentially be affected by it throughout the rest of their lives. [tags: relationships, psychology, stress]
    . 10 Works Cited

    3739 words
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    Divorce Should Be Harder to Obtain — Divorce should be harder to obtain due to the effect that it has on children the main effect it has on the children is depression. “ In the short term divorce is always troublesome for children Mavis Hetherington videotaped and scrutinized the workings of 1400 divorced families since the early 1970’s. Hetherington pinpoints a crisis period of about two years in the immediate aftermath of separation when the adults, preoccupied with their own lives, typically takes their eye off parenting just when their children are reeling from loss and feeling bewildered” (Hethrington 2). [tags: marital break-ups, greener grass, children]
    . 4 Works Cited

    881 words
    (2.5 pages)

    Children of Divorce: The Negative Consequences — An analysis of the divorce process shows that post divorce, not only do the parents, but the children ultimately suffer negatively from the consequences of the situation at large. Each year over 1 million American children suffer the divorce of their parents, and over 50% of marriages will end up in divorce (Heritage). It not only takes months, but sometimes even years for some children to get back onto a healthy track with their families. The perfect American family, it’s portrayed everywhere. It’s portrayed in magazines, posters, on billboards, and even in some TV shows. [tags: Psychology ]
    . 12 Works Cited

    1155 words
    (3.3 pages)

    Divorce: The Separation of the Inseparable — Love is the number one reason for marriage, even having Valentine’s Day to celebrate love. Yet Americans for Divorce Reform (ADR) estimate that, “Probably, 40 or possibly even 50 percent of marriages will end in divorce if current trends continue» (Colleen). The ADR also shows the divorce rates between Christians and non-Christians are indistinguishable. Even worse, Christians divorcing their spouses are distorting the Bible in order to justify their actions. Christians must be called to a higher standard in regards to divorce, and they must stop twisting the Bible to appease their conscience. [tags: Marriage Issues]
    . 2 Works Cited

    949 words
    (2.7 pages)

    The Causes and Effects of Divorce — From past to present people all over the world have determined to live together, or “get married”. Marriage can be a beautiful thing, but some couples are unable to maintain their relationship, because they choose divorce as a solution to cope with the problems between husband and wife. Furthermore divorce is definitely on a rise. The effects of divorce can be detrimental to a family, but the causes of divorce can be just as bad. In this essay we will cover one of the main causes of divorce and one of the main effects. [tags: cause/effect essay]

    501 words
    (1.4 pages)

    The Causes And Effects Of Divorce — For thousands of years until present day, the best way to officially be the partner of someone is marriage. People have been practicing marriage for a long time. It is the best act to celebrate the love of one couple until death tears them apart. However, people do not manage to keep the marriage promise forever. This situation leads to the phenomenon called divorce, which unfortunately is becoming more common than ever before, and it is drastically bringing new effects in the lives of those individuals involved. [tags: Family Psychology ]
    . 9 Works Cited

    1247 words
    (3.6 pages)

    Let’s Talk: An Alternative to Divorce — America has become a fast-paced society of people with no interaction. Families are busier, with little time for trivialities such as having dinner together or getting to know one another through conversation. Drive-thru lanes provide quick and hassle free services of increasing variety. Vacation spots offer walk in wedding chapels and coming soon are the drive-thru divorce lanes. Learning to talk about conflict instead of running from it is a skill lacking in today’s culture. It should not be so easy to quit on marriage. [tags: Family]

    903 words
    (2.6 pages)

    Effects of Divorce on Children — In modern society, divorce is common among many married couples. Everywhere you look, a new couple is separating and slowing destroying their family. Divorce is a legal dissolution that allows a couple to freely remarry in the future and occurs when a married couple can no longer handle being in each other’s company (divorce). Their problems result in constant arguments that cannot be resolved. The problems faced within a couple not only affects the two involved in the fight, but also their children’s lives in a negatively manner. [tags: marriage, society, relationship]
    . 9 Works Cited

    1864 words
    (5.3 pages)

    Love Relationships of Children of Divorce — Millions of divorces are granted each year. Children whose parents divorced are more likely to divorce themselves, maintain poorer relations, and report being generally less happy with their lives (Brown 1999). Over 25% of all women will divorce within 10 years time, and a third of all first marriages disrupted within 10 years. Guldner and O’Connor (1991) said that “where possible, group therapy for dealing with problems of children of divorce is the treatment of choice”. Group therapy with kids focuses on helping them to feel like they’re not alone, connect with and learn from others, receive peer validation and support, and normalize experiences (Gladding, 2005). [tags: children, therapy, psychoeducational, counseling]
    . 13 Works Cited

    2087 words
    (6 pages)

    The Impact of Divorce on Children — Divorce, once unheard of among most people, is now a commonplace occurrence in families when the adults have decided that they can no longer work out their differences. Unfortunately, divorce tends to have a negative impact on the children in the family, particularly affecting children who already have psychological or emotional difficulties, such as ADHD (Patten, 1999). Problems that arise in children of divorce run the gamut from behavioral problems to later relationship/trust issues. Children of divorce more often display behavioral problems at school than do children from intact families, except when abuse is present in the home (Corcoran, 1997). [tags: Family Issues]
    . 5 Works Cited

    1450 words
    (4.1 pages)

    Divorce and Consequences for Child Development — The dissolution of a marriage, or ‘divorce’ as it is known, was once an infrequent occurrence and often considered the failure of a wife to maintain a happy marriage (Lewis, 2013). Following a change in legislation in the 1960s that allowed partners to end their marriage without having to provide justification, in conjunction with the sexual liberation movement, the incidence of divorce more than doubled (Wilcox, 2009). According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012), the number of marriages ending in divorce has continued to rise, however, despite an increase in social acceptance, the negative impact divorce has on children has remained prevalent (Kelly & Emery, 2004). [tags: Child Psychology, Family Structure]
    . 29 Works Cited

    1945 words
    (5.6 pages)

    The Main Effects of Divorce on Adolescents — Divorce is not a word many people like to use in casual conversation. It has a derogatory connotation that just leaves a lingering feeling of sadness hanging in the air. Although I grant that there are times when there is nothing left to do but move on in a relationship, I still maintain that a marriage is meant to be for life and it’s not something that should be given up on lightly. “Fifty percent of first marriages, sixty seven percent of second marriages and seventy four of third marriages end in divorce (Baker, 2011.)” That statistic is staggering. [tags: old fashioned courtship, marriages]
    . 6 Works Cited

    1578 words
    (4.5 pages)

    The Effects of Divorce on Children — Becoming a major trend in the United States among families, is the increase of marital instability (Del Boca & Cigno, (2003). Economic difficulties arise for various reasons such as finances and custody battles, when it comes to the separation of parents. In most cases, the mother receives the child while the father has to contribute time and income for the child. For families, divorce can be a devastating experience that has a major impact when children become involved (Welton, 2014). New research proposes that children whose parents are divorced had a difficult time adapting to the social, mental, and physical changes in their lives. [tags: marital instability, behavioral science]
    . 7 Works Cited

    1060 words
    (3 pages)

    Divorce and Its Effect On Children — I. Introdution Divorce is a heavy concept that has many implications for those involved. The situation becomes even more consequential when children are considered. As divorce has become more commonplace in society, millions of children are affected by the separation of the nuclear family. How far-reaching are these effects. And is there a time when divorce is beneficial to the lives of the children. This paper will examine some of the major research and several different perspectives regarding the outcomes of divorce for the children involved, and whether it can actually be in the best interest of the kids. [tags: Family Issues]
    . 5 Works Cited

    1490 words
    (4.3 pages)

    The Impact of Divorce on Children — “Studies show 35% of people who marry get a divorce, and 18% of those divorced are divorced multiple times” Clinton, Hart, & Ohlschlager, (2005). The rate of divorce of United States families continues to increase and is one of the most perplexing experiences for children. There are many reasons couples decide to end their ties to each other. Whatever the reasons, ending a relationship means that all individual that has ties to each other must adjust to a new way of living. The married couple may experience the stages of loss, such as, the experience of grief. [tags: grief, unhappy marriage, domestic violence]
    . 6 Works Cited

    963 words
    (2.8 pages)

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