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Mla Handbook For Writers Of Research Papers 6Th Edition Online

Mla Handbook For Writers Of Research Papers 6Th Edition Online

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/). When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice at bottom.

MLA Formatting and Style Guide

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodr�guez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2016-09-12 10:29:40

The following overview should help you better understand how to cite sources using MLA eighth edition, including the list of works cited and in-text citations.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. See also our MLA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel .

Creating a Works Cited list using the eighth edition

MLA has turned to a style of documentation that is based on a general method that may be applied to every possible source, to many different types of writing. But since texts have become increasingly mobile, and the same document may be found in several different sources, following a set of fixed rules is no longer sufficient.

The current system is based on a few principles, rather than an extensive list of specific rules. While the handbook still gives examples of how to cite sources, it is organized according to the process of documentation, rather than by the sources themselves. This process teaches writers a flexible method that is universally applicable. Once you are familiar with the method, you can use it to document any type of source, for any type of paper, in any field.

Here is an overview of the process:

When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements. These are the general pieces of information that MLA suggests including in each Works Cited entry. In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:

  1. Author.
  2. Title of source.
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location.

Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication, and required punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses, and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler (just commas and periods separate the elements), and information about the source is kept to the basics.

Author

Begin the entry with the author’s last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the name, as presented in the work. End this element with a period.

Said, Edward W. Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

Title of source

The title of the source should follow the author’s name. Depending upon the type of source, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks.

A book should be in italics:

Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999.

A website should be in italics:

Lundman, Susan. «How to Make Vegetarian Chili.» eHow, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html.*

A periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper article) should be in quotation marks:

Bagchi, Alaknanda. «Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu.» Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature. vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

A song or piece of music on an album should be in quotation marks:

Beyoncé. «Pray You Catch Me.» Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.

*The eighth edition handbook recommends including URLs when citing online sources. For more information, see the “Optional Elements” section below.

Title of container

Unlike earlier versions, the eighth edition refers to containers, which are the larger wholes in which the source is located. For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container.

Kincaid, Jamaica. «Girl.» The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories, edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306-07.

The container may also be a television series, which is made up of episodes.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

The container may also be a website, which contains articles, postings, and other works.

Zinkievich, Craig. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. Skewed & Reviewed, 27 Apr. 2009, www.arcgames.com/en/games/star-trek-online/news/detail/1056940-skewed-%2526-reviewed-interviews-craig. Accessed 15 Mar. 2009.

In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books. or watched a television series on Netflix. You might have found the electronic version of a journal on JSTOR. It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation. season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/70152031?trackId=200256157&tctx=0%2C20%2C0974d361-27cd-44de-9c2a-2d9d868b9f64-12120962.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal. vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.

Other contributors

In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc. If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation.

Note. In the eighth edition, terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc. are no longer abbreviated.

Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard, Vintage-Random House, 1988.

Woolf, Virginia. Jacob’s Room. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc. 2008.

Version

If a source is listed as an edition or version of a work, include it in your citation.

The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.

Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. 3rd ed. Pearson, 2004.

Number

If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no.2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.

Publisher

The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. If there is more than one publisher, and they are all are relevant to your research, list them in your citation, separated by a forward slash (/).

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive, www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

Women’s Health: Problems of the Digestive System. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2006.

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

Note. the publisher’s name need not be included in the following sources: periodicals, works published by their author or editor, a Web cite whose title is the same name as its publisher, a Web cite that makes works available but does not actually publish them (such as YouTube. WordPress. or JSTOR ).

Publication date

The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date. When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your use of it. If you’re unsure about which date to use, go with the date of the source’s original publication.

In the following example, Mutant Enemy is the primary production company, and “Hush” was released in 1999. This is the way to create a general citation for a television episode.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer. created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, Mutant Enemy, 1999 .

However, if you are discussing, for example, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you should cite the full date. Because you are specifying the date of airing, you would then use WB Television Network (rather than Mutant Enemy), because it was the network (rather than the production company) that aired the episode on the date you’re citing.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, WB Television Network, 14 Dec. 1999 .

Location

You should be as specific as possible in identifying a work’s location.

An essay in a book, or an article in journal should include page numbers.

Adiche, Chimamanda Ngozi. “On Monday of Last Week.” The Thing around Your Neck, Alfred A. Knopf, 2009, pp. 74-94 .

The location of an online work should include a URL.

Wheelis, Mark. «Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.» Emerging Infectious Diseases. vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.

A physical object that you experienced firsthand should identify the place of location.

Matisse, Henri. The Swimming Pool. 1952, Museum of Modern Art, New York .

Optional elements

The eighth edition is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting. The following is a list of select optional elements that should be part of a documented source at the writer’s discretion.

Date of original publication:

If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.

Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine. 1984. Perennial-Harper, 1993.

City of publication:

The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before 1900. Since pre-1900 works were usually associated with the city in which they were published, your documentation may substitute the city name for the publisher’s name.

Thoreau, Henry David. Excursions. Boston, 1863.

When you cite an online source, the MLA Handbook recommends including a date of access on which you accessed the material, since an online work may change or move at any time.

Bernstein, Mark. «10 Tips on Writing the Living Web.» A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.

As mentioned above, while the eighth edition recommends including URLs when you cite online sources, you should always check with your instructor or editor and include URLs at their discretion.

A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a series of digits and letters that leads to the location of an online source. Articles in journals are often assigned DOIs to ensure that the source is locatable, even if the URL changes. If your source is listed with a DOI, use that instead of a URL.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. «Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates.» Environmental Toxicology. vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, doi: 10.1002/tox.20155.

Creating in-text citations using the eighth edition

The in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source, and should direct readers to the entry in the list of works cited. For the most part, an in-text citation is the author’s name and page number (or just the page number, if the author is named in the sentence) in parentheses :

Imperialism is “the practice, the theory, and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory” (Said 9 ).

According to Edward W. Said. imperialism is defined by “the practice, the theory, and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory” (9 ).

Said, Edward W.Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference, like so (00:02:15-00:02:35).

Again, your goal is to attribute your source and provide your reader with a reference without interrupting your text. Your readers should be able to follow the flow of your argument without becoming distracted by extra information.

Final thoughts about the eighth edition

The current MLA guidelines teach you a widely applicable skill. Once you become familiar with the core elements that should be included in each entry in the Works Cited list, you will be able to create documentation for any type of source. While the handbook still includes helpful examples that you may use as guidelines, you will not need to consult it every time you need to figure out how to cite a source you’ve never used before. If you include the core elements, in the proper order, using consistent punctuation, you will be fully equipped to create a list of works cited on your own.

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in MLA

The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2016.

Contributors’ names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.

Contributors’ names. «Title of Resource.» The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, Last edited date.

Russell, Tony, et al. «MLA Formatting and Style Guide.» The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2 Aug. 2016.

MLA Citation Guide

MLA Format Resources

Helpful Hints: PDF Guides

  • MLA Citations Guide (PDF)
  • MLA Image Citation Guide (PDF)
  • Use these handy reference guides when you’re creating citations!

MLA Formatting and Style Guide (from Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab)

  • In-text MLA citation examples
  • Learn about plagiarism and how to avoid it

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

  • The Library has two copies of this book.
  • Call Number: LB2369 .G53 2009

Tutorial Video: Cite Your Sources in MLA Format

Works Cited Examples

Jump to Citation Example:

Material Type

Citation Format and Example

Author’s last name, first name. Title of book. Publication city: Publisher, year. Medium of publication.

Example — One Author:

Bleicher, Steven. Contemporary Color Theory & Use. New York: Delmar, 2012. Print.

Example — Two Authors:

Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. Star Trek Chronology: The History of the Future. New York: Pocket, 1993. Print.

See Section 5.5 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.

Author’s last name, first name. Title of book. Publication city: Publisher, year. Title of database or website. Medium consulted. Date of access.

Example — One Author:

Hirsch, Robert. Light and Lens. Photography in the Digital Age. Burlington, MA: Focal Press, 2007. ebrary collections. Web. 21 June 2011.

Example — Three Authors:

Burtenshaw, Ken, Nik Mahon, and Caroline Barfoot. Fundamentals of Creative Advertising. An Introduction to Branding. London, GBR: AVA Publishing, 2006. ebrary collections. Web. 21 June 2011.

See Sections 5.6.2 and 5.5 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.

Author’s last name, first name. Title of work. Illustrator’s first name last name. Publication city: Publisher, year. Medium of publication.

For a volume in which illustrations supplement the written text, such as an illustrated edition of a literary work, give the illustrator’s name, preceded by the abbreviation Illus. (“Illustrated by”), after the title. If another contributor (e.g. an editor or a translator) is also cited after the title, place the names in the order in which they appear on the title page.

Carroll, Lewis. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illus. Arthur Rackham. Poem by Austin Dobson. New York: Sea Star Books, 2002.

If you refer mainly to the illustrator’s work instead of the author’s in your research, begin the entry in the works-cited list with the illustrator’s name, followed by illus. ("illustrator"), and give the author’s name, preceded by the word By, after the title.

Tenniel, John, illus. Alice Through the Looking-Glass. By Lewis Carroll. Academy Editions: London, 1977. Print.

See Section 5.5.12 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.

Author’s last name, first name. Title of work. Publication city: Publisher, year. Medium of publication.

In a graphic novel, text and illustrations are intermingled. The entry in the works-cited list for a graphic novel entirely created by one person follows the same format as any other non-periodical print publication.

Barry, Lynda. What It Is. Montreal: Drawn & Quarterly, 2008. Print.

If the graphic novel is part of a multi-volume work, you may add information about the series following the medium of publication.

Miller, Frank. Just Another Saturday Night. Milwaukie, OR: Dark Horse Books, 2005. Print. Vol. 6 of Frank Miller’s Sin City: Booze, Broads, & Bullets.

For graphic novels created through collaboration, begin the entry with the name of the person whose contribution is the most relevant to your research, following it with a label identifying the person’s role. List other collaborators after the title in the order in which they appear on the title page, also with labels identifying their roles.

Pekar, Harvey, writer. The Quitter. Art by Dean Haspiel. Gray tones by Lee Loughridge. Letters by Pat Brosseau. New York: Vertigo-DC Comics, 2005. Print.

See Section 5.5.12 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.

Author’s last name, first name. "Title of article." Title of journal Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. Medium of publication.

Wilcox, Rhonda V. "Shifting Roles and Synthetic Women in Star Trek: The Next Generation." Studies in Popular Culture 13.2 (1991): 53-65. Print.

Solomon, Jonathon D. "Learning from Louis Vuitton." Journal of Architectural Education 63.2 (2010): 67-70. Print.

See Section 5.4 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.

Author’s last name, first name. "Title of article." Title of newspaper or magazine Date of publication: Pages. Medium of publication.

Di Rado, Alicia. "Trekking through College: Classes Explore Modern Society Using the World of Star Trek." Los Angeles Times 15 Mar. 1995: A3. Print.

See Sections 5.4.5 and 5.4.6 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.

Artist’s last name, first name. "Title of cartoon or comic strip (if any)." Descriptive label. Title of newspaper or magazine Date of publication: Pages. Medium of publication.

Gross, Sam. Cartoon. New Yorker 23 May 2011: 28. Print.

Example — Comic Strip:

McDonnell, Patrick. "Mutts." Comic strip. San Francisco Chronicle 25 June 2011: E7. Print.

See Section 5.7.9 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.

Article from an Online Database:

Author’s last name, first name. “Title of article.” Title of journal or magazine Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. Title of database. Medium consulted. Date of access. <URL (optional)>.

URLs are now an optional component of a citation, but it is still recommended to include this information if the reader will not be able to locate a resource without it, or it is part of an instructor’s requirements.

When providing a URL, enclose the complete address in angle brackets following the date of access, period, and a space. End the entire entry with a period after the closing angle bracket:

McCarthy, Erin. "10 Scenes That Changed Movie History." Popular Mechanics 184.1 (2007): 64. Research Library Core. ProQuest. Web. 23 Feb. 2010.

Example — EBSCO Art Source:

Jays, David. “First Love, Last Rites.” Sight & Sound 17.10 (2007): 34-5. Art Source. Web. 23 Feb. 2010.

See Sections 5.6.3 and 5.6.4 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.

Name of author, editor, director, etc. "Title of work (for a specific article or page)." Title of website. Date of posting/revision. Publisher/sponsor of website. Date of publication. Medium consulted. Date of access. <URL (optional)> .

URLs are now an optional component of a citation, but it is still recommended to include this information if the reader will not be able to locate a resource without it, or it is part of an instructor’s requirements.

When providing a URL, enclose the complete address in angle brackets following the date of access, period, and a space. End the entire entry with a period after the closing angle bracket:

Example — Article or Page:

Gross, Doug. "It’s Social Media Day — again!" CNN.com. Cable News Network, 30 June 2011. Web. 30 June 2011.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. «Drafters.» Occupational Outlook Handbook. 2010-2011 Edition. Web. 23 Feb. 2010.
<http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos111.htm>.

Example — Blog Posting:

Vigor, Emily. "The art of Cera Hensly and the AAU Library Photography section." AAU Library Blog. Academy of Art University Library. 16 Mar. 2011. Web. 30 June 2011. <http://elmo.academyart.edu/blog/?p=787>.

See Section 5.6.2 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.

Image from a Printed Source:

Artist’s last name, first name. Title of artwork. Year. Name of institution/private collection housing artwork. Title of print source. Author/editor’s first name last name. Publication city: Publisher, year. Page/plate number. Medium of reproduction.

Eakins, Thomas. Spinning. 1881. Private collection. Thomas Eakins. Ed. Darrel Sewell. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art in assn. with Yale UP, 2001. Plate 91. Print.

Kahlo, Frida. The Two Fridas. 1939. Museo de Art Moderno, Mexico City. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective. 12th ed. Ed. Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya. Vol. 2. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth, 2006. 774. Print.

View this Image Citation Guide (PDF) for more information on citing images.

See Section 5.7.6 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.

Digital Image from
the Internet or
Online Database:

Artist’s last name, first name. Title of artwork. Year. Name of institution/private collection housing artwork. Title of database or website. Publisher/sponsor of database or website. Medium consulted. Date of access. <URL (optional)> .

Note about publisher/sponsor: When known, include if it is not related to the housing institution/collection; is a parent entity of the database or website; or offers the source in additional formats.

URLs are now an optional component of a citation, but it is still recommended to include this information if the reader will not be able to locate a resource without it, or it is part of an instructor’s requirements.

When providing a URL, enclose the complete address in angle brackets following the date of access, period, and a space. End the entire entry with a period after the closing angle bracket:

Examples without URL:

Braun, Adolphe. Flower Study, Rose of Sharon. c. 1854. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 2 June 2011.

Eggleston, William. Memphis. c. 1969. Museum of Mod. Art. Academy of Art University Collection, LUNA. Academy of Art University. Web. 27 Apr. 2011.

Example with URL:

Cloix, Emmanuel. BROUSSAI 2 visu. 2007. Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 1 June 2011. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BROUSSAI_2_visu.jpg> .

View this Image Citation Guide (PDF) for more information on citing images.

See Sections 5.6.1, 5.6.2, and 5.7.6 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.

Title of film or video. Film studio or distributor, Release year. Format.

You may include other data that seem pertinent such as names of the screenwriter, director (use the abbreviation Dir.) performers (use the abbreviation Perf.), and producer between the title and the distributor. For films dubbed or subtitled in English, you may give the English title and follow it with the original title, italicized, in square brackets.

Format should be the format you viewed, for example Film, DVD, or VHS.

It’s a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. RKO, 1946. Film.

Rebel Without a Cause. Dir. Nicholas Ray. Perf. James Dean, Natalie Wood, Sal Mineo, and Jim Backus. 1955. Warner Home Video, 2005. DVD.

Example — DVD with original title:

Pan’s Labyrinth [El laberinto del fauno ]. Dir. Guillermo del Toro. Perf. Ariadna Gil, Ivana Baquero, Sergi López, Maribel Verdú, and Doug Jones. 2006. New Line Home Entertainment, 2007. DVD.

Example — YouTube Video:

"Academy of Art University April 2009 Fashion Show." YouTube. 2009. Web. 29 June 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bUFar8VwJXY&feature=channel_video_title>.

See Sections 5.7.3 and 5.6.2d of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.

Citing Your Sources: MLA

Developed by the Modern Language Association, this style is most widely used for research papers in the humanities.

Citing sources in this style consists of two parts:

With the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook. the approach to citing sources shifts from creating entries based on the type of source cited (books, articles, etc.) to recording common features of the work. While this approach is more flexible for new media, it may be challenging for you to know which core elements are relevant to the source you are citing. Thus, this guide also provides some examples of commonly cited sources.

How to Format In-Text Citations

For more detailed information see MLA Handbook. 54-58, 116-128.

An in-text citation provides your reader with two pieces of information:

  1. The first element from the corresponding works-cited list entry, usually the author's last name
  2. The location of the cited information in the work, usually a page number

Standard Formatting of the In-Text Citation

  • Put the page number in parentheses
  • Include the author's name (or the title for works with no author) in the sentence or in the parentheses before the page number.

Said makes a similar argument (3-4).

This point has been argued previously (Said 3-4).

The article "Black Workers Matter" links racism and union representation (18).

The link between racism and union representation is important ("Black Workers Matter" 18).

  • If it is clear from the context which work you are citing, use only the page number.

    Later, the protagonist of Jane Eyre proclaims, "I would always rather be happy than dignified" (413).

  • Place the parenthetical reference at a natural pause in the text or after the quotation marks for direct quotations.
  • Multiple authors. 2-3 authors use the last names of each. For more than 3 authors, use the first author's last name and et al.

    (Smith, Jones, and Brown 323)

  • For authors with the same last name. include their first initial.
  • For multiple works by the same author, include a shorten form of the title.

    We should all try to "live in the Past, the Present, and the Future" (Dickens, A Christmas Carol 95).

  • For works with no page numbers. use explicitly numbered parts of the work (paragraphs, sections, chapters). Use author (or title) alone if there are no numbered parts.

    According to the Human Rights Campaign's map of state laws and policies.

  • For time-based works. use a time stamp in the form of hh:mm:ss.

    ("Hell Hath No Fury" 00:15:23-00:18:58)

    The "Works Cited" list provides details on all sources you used in your paper. If you include other sources consulted during your research, title the page "Works Consulted."

    Core Elements

    The menu below lists the core elements in a works-cited entry with its associated punctuation mark. Use information found in the source itself; do not use information about the source found on websites or in library catalogs. If an element does not exist for the source you are citing, skip it. For further details on an element, open the menu item.

    For more information see: MLA Handbook. 21-25.

    The author is the person or group responsible for creating or producing the work.

    • Begin the entry with the author's last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the name as listed in the work.
      • Alvarez, Julia.
    • No author: skip element and begin with title, but also see below for corporate author.
    • Corporate author: If you don't find a personal author, determine whether it was created by an organization, institution, government agency.
      • If published by the organization: skip the author element and put the organization's name in Publisher.
      • If published by a different publisher: enter the organization's name as the author.
    • Two authors: list them in the order they appear. Invert the first author's name, followed by a comma and word "and" and the second author's name in normal order.
      • Dorris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich.
    • Three or more authors: invert the first author's name, follow it with a comma, and et al.
      • Manigault-Bryant, LeRhonda S. et al.
    • Editors and translators. follow their names with their role. Use the editor as the author if your focus is on the entire work and translator as author if your focus is on the translation.
      • Goldstein, Darra, editor.
      • White, Alan, translator.
    • Performers, directors, conductors, etc.: if you are focusing on the contributions of a specific individual, begin your entry with that person's name with a descriptive label.
      • Smith, Will, performer.
      • Lee, Spike, director.
    • Pseudonyms, online usernames: Enter like regular author names. If the name takes the form of a traditional first name and last name, start the entry with the last name.

    For more information see: MLA Handbook. 21-25.

    The title of the source is often located near the author's name and prominently displayed.

    • Enter the title exactly as it appears in the source, except for standardizing capitalization and punctuation.
    • Place the title in quotation marks if the source is part of a larger work. For example:
      • article
      • essay, poem, short story
      • television episode
      • blog posting
    • Italicize the title if the work is self-contained and independent, such as books and films.
    • Untitled works: Give a generic description in place of the title. Do not use italics or quotation marks.

    Title of Container ,

    For more information see: MLA Handbook. 30-36.

    A container is the larger work in which the source appears.

    • Examples of containers include:
      • journals, magazines, newspapers
      • books containing collections of essays, poems, or short stories
      • television show
      • blogs
    • Italicize the title and follow it with a comma.
    • A source can have more than one container. For example:
      • an article from a journal available through a library database.
        The first container is the journal and the second is the database.
      • a television episode watched online.
        The first container is the television show and the second is the online provider (Hulu, Netflix, etc.).
    • In order to have a complete citation, you should add the core elements from "Title of Container" to "Location" to the end of the entry for each container.
    • No larger container: skip this element.

    For more information see: MLA Handbook. 37-38.

    Other contributors are other people credited for the work.

    • If a person other than the author is important to what you are researching or for identifying the work, include their name in this element.
    • Precede the name with a description of their role. Some common ones are:
      • Edited by
      • Translated by
      • Introduction by
      • Directed by
      • Performance by
      • Adapted by
      • Illustrated by
    • For works with many contributors, such as film and television, include only those people most relevant to your research.

    For more information see: MLA Handbook. 38-39.

    Version indicates that there is more than one form of the work.

    • For books there may be numbered editions (1st ed. 2nd ed. etc.) or revised editions (rev. ed. updated ed. etc.)
    • Other possible versions include:
      • unabridged version
      • director's cut
      • software versions
    • The version information is written in lowercase, unless the previous element ended in a period, in which case the initial word is capitalized.

    For more information see: MLA Handbook. 39-40.

    Number refers to works appearing in a numbered sequence.

    Instances where the number element is used include:

    • Using one volume of a multi-volume set: indicate which volume you used, using abbreviation vol. and the number.
    • Journal volumes and issues: indicate volume with abbreviation vol. and the number, followed by a comma, and issue number with the abbreviation no. and the number (e.g. vol. 7 no. 4).
    • Television series and episodes: record the season number and the episode number (e.g. season 5, episode 20).

    For more information see: MLA Handbook. 40-42.

    Publisher is the organization responsible for making the content publicly available.

    • If two or more organizations are equally responsible for the work, separate their names with a forward slash (/) with spaces before and after the slash.
    • Books: look for the publisher on the title page or copyright page.
    • Film and Television. cite the company that had the primary responsibility for the work.
    • Web sites. look for a copyright notice in the footer or an About Us page.
    • Omit business words such as Co. Corp. Inc. and Ltd. from the publisher's name.
    • Abbreviate University (U) and Press (P) in the names of academic publishers.
    • Publisher is not included in the following instances:
      • Journals, magazines, newspapers
      • Works published by its author or editor
      • Web sites whose title is essentially the same as the name of its publisher
      • Web services not involved in producing the works it makes available. For example, YouTube, JSTOR, ProQuest. These services are containers.

    For more information see: MLA Handbook. 42-46.

    Publication date documents the date of the work you used.

    • Multiple publication dates: for some sources there may be a print publication date and an online date. Cite the date for the format you used only.
    • Works developed over time: cite the range of dates.
    • Issues of a journal, magazines, newspapers: Indicate year (e.g. 2012), month and year (e.g. Oct. 2012), season and year (e.g. Fall 2012), or full date (e.g. 18 October 2012) as indicated on the work.
    • Online comments. Record time stamp using 12-hour clock format ( e.g. 18 Oct. 2012, 8:58 a.m.)

    For more information see: MLA Handbook. 46-54.

    Location specifies where you found the item within a larger container.

    • Print works: indicate the page number or range of page numbers, preceded by p. or pp. (e.g. p. 6 or pp. 6-10).
    • Online sources: provide the URL, stable URL (also called permalink), or DOI (digital object identifier).
    • Episodes on DVD: indicate disc number (e.g. disc 4).
    • Physical object: give name of the place that holds the object and the city (e.g. Williams College Museum of Art, Williamstown, MA).
    • Archival material: provide name of repository, city, and collection locator (e.g. Williams College Special Collections, Williamstown, MA, Hopkins Family Papers).
    • Performances: indicate the venue and city (e.g. '62 Center for Theatre and Dance, Williamstown, MA).

    Formatting and Ordering the Works-Cited List

    For more information see: MLA Handbook. 111-116.

    • Place the works-cited list at end of the paper .
    • Use hanging indent feature of your word processor to indent the second and subsequent lines of the entry .5 inches from the left margin.
    • Arrange entries in alphabetical order by the first element, usually the author. If there is no author, use the title.
    • Alphabetize letter by letter of the author's name before the comma. Letters after the comma are used only when authors have the same last name.
    • For multiple works by the same author, alphabetize by title. Also, replace the author's name with three hyphens on the second and subsequent entries.
    • Alphabetize titles letter by letter ignoring initial articles (A, An, The, and foreign equivalents).
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