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Manchester Metropolitan University French Essay Phrases

Manchester Metropolitan University French Essay Phrases

















































Key phrases used in essay titles

As you become more familiar with writing essays and sitting exams, you will notice that certain key phrases occur time and time again in your essay titles. Below are some of the most common, with an explanation of what they mean:

  • analyse: look at the concepts and ideas under discussion in depth.
  • assess: make comments about the value/importance of the concepts and ideas under discussion.
  • compare: look for similarities between the concepts and ideas under discussion.
  • contrast: look for differences between the concepts and ideas under discussion.
  • criticise: judge the strengths and weaknesses of a particular issue, theory or concept, using reasoned argument (and references) to back up your points.
  • critically: analyse as above, but in depth.
  • define: state precisely what is meant by a particular issue, theory or concept.
  • describe: give a detailed account of.
  • discuss: give reasons for and against; investigate and examine by argument.
  • enumerate: recount, one by one, in concise form, the points required.
  • evaluate: weigh up the arguments surrounding an issue, using your own opinions and, more importantly, reference to the work of others.
  • explain: clarify and interpret the material you present; state the "how or why" of the conditions which give rise to whatever you are examining.
  • illustrate: make clear by the use of example.
  • interpret: translate, exemplify, solve, or comment upon the subject and, usually, give your judgment or reaction to the problem.
  • justify: prove or show grounds for something. In such an answer, evidence should be presented in convincing form.
  • outline: give the main features of.
  • prove: establish something with certainty by evaluating and citing experimental evidence or by logical reasoning.
  • relate: show how issues are connected.
  • review: list all that is available (or that you have access to) on a particular subject.
  • state: present in a clear, concise form.
  • summarise: give an account of all the main points of the concepts and ideas under discussion with reference to use specific examples to make the meaning clear.
  • trace: give a description of progress, historical sequence, or development from the point of origin.

Adapted with permission fromThe University of Manchester School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Study Skills WorkbookbySteven Pryjmachuk;Study Skills in History; and information from theCommunication Skills Development Center, University of South Carolina.

Humanities Teaching and Learning Office, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester UK M13 9PL | Contact details | Feedback

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English with Urdu

Our combined honours courses give you the opportunity to improve your employability by studying a language alongside your degree

English places its strongest emphasis on the study of literature, but it also includes creative writing and the study of film and other media. Our flexible course structure means that students are able to choose course units from a wide range of options, including American Literature, Creative Writing and Film.

In Urdu. emphasis is placed on communicating effectively and developing transferable skills such as translating and interpreting. Students will learn how to use a range of constructions, and how to deal with variations of language according to the geographical origins of the speakers. The course aims to develop levels of competency that can be used in a professional domain, and to enable learners to use Urdu to discuss topics related to their main subject area.

Year of entry


3 years full-time

UCAS code(s)


UK, EU and Channel Island students: Full-time fee: £9,000 per year. This fee may increase each year in line with UK government policy.

Non-EU international students: Full-time fee: £11,800 per year. International students will keep the same fee for the duration of the course, providing it is completed in the normal timeframe (no repeat years or breaks in study).



Features and benefits of the course

  • Regular readings, visiting speakers and literary events.
  • All strands of our degree programmes offer the opportunity to study abroad for a term.
  • The opportunity to be taught by internationally recognised academics in a variety of specialist areas.
  • Opportunities to work with acclaimed authors on creative writing in a variety of genres. The Department of English at our Manchester campus is a large and vibrant community of around forty internationally renowned writers and critics. The department is home to the Manchester Writing School, the most successful of its kind in the UK, with over 45 published MA graduates. The Creative Director of the Manchester Writing School is the Poet Laureate, Carol Ann Duffy.
  • Students on the Manchester campus have a wealth of opportunities to engage with the many conferences, readings, research programmes, festivals and competitions run by the department, and to build their own networks among our many partners in the dynamic Manchester cultural and creative community.
  • Our newly refurbished Language Resource Centre is equipped with wireless laptops, PCs and voice recognition software for language training. It is also home to our multimedia and audio language learning laboratories, media booths for group-work with PCs or large flat screen TVs, infrared sound technology and multiple satellite channels broadcast in foreign languages with recording facilities.
  • Extensive preparation for the period of residence abroad and at least one visit from a tutor whilst you are there. The majority of our 30+ academic, research and support staff are native speakers of French, German, Italian, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, Japanese and Urdu. We also have multiple connections with language groups across Manchester to ensure you can converse in your chosen language.

About the course

Units you will study

Year 1

In Year 1 you will study 30 credits of Urdu. You will learn how to exchange greetings and personal information, how to talk about food and drink and to carry out simple conversations. you will learn the writing system, pronunciation rules, models of speech, and a range of useful phrases. you will learn how to distinguish between formal and informal terms of address.

Core Units
Approaches to Narrative

This unit introduces the critical study of narrative, providing you with the appropriate critical skills and vocabulary with which to analyse different forms of prose narrative, introducing a range of texts from different historical periods, traditions and genres. It develops key skills in the areas of planning and writing essays, and supports structured reflection on the transition to university-level English studies.

Critical Dialogues

This unit is an introduction to a number of key topics in critical and cultural theory. You will gain a range of distinct approaches to the analysis of literary and cinematic texts. Your study on this course will give you the skills required to identify, explain and compare particular critical and theoretical approaches to the study of literature and film. It also develops key skills in referencing and the conventions of academic essay writing.

How Language Works

This applied linguistics unit offers an introduction to the essential knowledge and skills base of language analysis, exploring speech sounds, words, sentences and texts. The main emphasis will be on English, with examples from other languages.

Urdu Beginners

This unit facilitates oral and written language skills at Beginners and Elementary level, corresponding to level A1 of the Common European Framework for Languages. The syllabus will include: greetings and introductions, exchanging personal information, alphabet, pronunciation, models of speech, useful phrases, locating and describing places, accommodation, awareness of local gastronomy, restaurants and eating out, introducing self or a business partner in a formal context, explaining what you do, what you study and your work.

Year 2

In Year 2 you can continue to study 30 credits of Urdu.

You will learn expressions and structures useful for Getting around, local transportation, explaining and understanding how to get to a place, expressing requests, changing plans: apologising and giving reasons, computer and technology; tourism and accommodation, using the telephone and communicating with a customer or as a customer.

In Year 2 you can continue with equal study or choose a major/minor route and so the units you will study depend on the route you have chosen. Studies in English currently include Nineteenth Century writing, Modernim and Post-modernism. Studies in philosophy currently include ethics and terror, Foucault, Metaphysics, Nietzsche and Sartre, philosophy of Plato and its presocratic background, Philosophy of religion, Political theory, and Practical ethics.

Core Units
Nineteenth-Century Writing to Modernism

This unit will develop your knowledge and understanding of British poetry, fiction, drama, visual art and travel literature published between 1800 and 1939.

Postwar to the Present

This unit will introduce you to a range of contemporary British fiction and drama written in the period between the end of WW2 and up to the present day.

Option Units
American Spaces

Touching upon a broad range of genres, this unit is concerned with critical and creative conceptions of ‘space’ and travel (both geographic and metaphorical) in American literature from colonial times to the present.

Creative Writing Workshop

This unit covers topics such as creative writing: poetry; prose; script, considering processes of writing and engaging with writing techniques. Over the course of two terms you will elect to write in two of the following three genres: Prose, Poetry, Script. Accordingly, the unit’s learning outcomes are replicated across two terms as in each term a different genre will be covered, providing the same generic skills but honed to the specific demands of the genre. You will, then, study the formal aspects of creative writing, including linkage between form and content, genre and structure.

Critical and Cultural Theory I

This unit introduces theoretical arguments about literature as a cultural practice, raising questions about its social significance and how we make value judgements about texts. The unit will draw upon and link three fields of critical practice. By analysing texts using Critical Theory, Postcolonial Theory and Disability Studies you will reflect upon the relationship between theoretical models and literary and cinematic representations.

Engaging the Humanities and Social Science: Interdisciplinary Learning and Practice (15 Credits)

Apply interdisciplinary methods and approaches in a professional and/or public setting. Students will work in interdisciplinary teams on one of a range of on and off-campus projects to showcase interdiscipilnary skills in practice.

Engaging the Humanities: Interdisciplinary Learning and Practice (30 CREDITS)

An interdisciplinary examination of the methods, approaches and perspectives of Humanities and Social Science disciplines applied to contemporary socio-economic challenges.

Enlightenment and Romanticism

This unit will look at the period of British literature from 1688 to 1830, dealing in particular with the emergence of the novel, and the shift from eighteenth-century to Romantic culture.

Film Genre and Mode

The unit introduces theories of film genre and develops students’ understanding of a range of film genres and other modes of cinematic expression.

Year 3

You will further develop your competence in Urdu by increasing your fluency when talking about practical every day issues, enhancing your knowledge of grammar and syntax (including using a range of more sophisticated structures) and learning skills to use Urdu in professional situations.

Core Units
Critical Project

This unit provides you with the opportunity to undertake guided independent research to produce an extended piece of critical work on a film topic of your choice. There is no prescriptive curriculum outline, allowing you the opportunity to develop an individual project that builds upon the skills developed in Level 4 and 5 units, and extends subject knowledge encountered throughout the degree through independent project design and research.

Option Units
American Literature & Culture 1945 to the Present

The unit surveys American literature and culture (including black and African American music) from 1945 to the present day. It introduces you to the range and diversity of recent US literature, beginning in the post-World War II period and continuing through to the present day. Alongside the study of literature, students explore the wider cultural scene in the US, in particular, the political and social significance of black and African American music.

Cinema and Nation

This unit explores the ways in which national identity is constructed in the cinemas of the United States and United Kingdom to interrogate formulations of British and American identity, both independently and in dialogue with each other.  

Critical and Cultural Theory II

This unit explores the question of the human in contemporary cultural debate.  To do so, it draws upon a range of theoretical work in the field and takes the conceptual frameworks discovered there to a wide range of primary texts. 

European Modernities

This unit will introduce students to a number of major works of European literature responding to modernity in the period 1850-1950. As modernity dramatically realigned the political and social landscape of Europe, students will explore how artists used new forms to confront these changed realities. The course will also enrich students’ understanding of the major currents of European literature and history in the period studied and expose them to a number of national cultural traditions as well as the circulation of a pan-European culture. We will read texts across genres (poetry, drama, the novel, criticism) and also examine the interaction between the visual arts and literature, as the `new’ artistic sensibility shown in European art spurred on literary experimentation. The works studied will be drawn from central sites of cultural production, like France, Germany and Italy, but will also take in more culturally peripheral sites like Norway, Russia, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. We will largely read works in translation, but students who can read the text in the original language will be encouraged to do so.

Fin-de-Siecle Literature and Culture

This unit will introduce you to end of Nineteenth Century British and European culture and writing by studying the fictional, dramatic and poetical works of individual authors and other texts originating in the fin de siècle period.

Modern Drama

This unit will introduce students to the range and diversity of dramatic texts in the twentieth and twenty-first century highlighting the interventions these plays have made socially, culturally and politically. You will investigate the ways that dramatic writing has engaged with social, cultural and political debate during the given time period drawing on texts from Britain, Ireland, Europe, America and Africa. The unit will consider the texts within their historical, political and theatrical context and look at the ways in which both thematic content and theatrical form have impacted on audiences.

Modern Gothic

This unit introduces and defines the field of Gothic studies via film, TV and literature as the locus of textual and contextual issues. It explores the mode’s responses to historical and social change via psychoanalytical and socio-cultural theory. The unit develops student skills in both close textual reading and psychological and ideological analysis of the mode. It introduces you to the critical and historical field of Gothic studies.

Reading and Writing Children’s Literature

This unit provides an analytical study of a range of classic and modern texts written for children. It also uses these texts as models for the production of new texts. The unit also covers appropriate techniques for writing for children. It provides you with the skills to analyse a range of children’s literature, and to use the resulting knowledge to produce original texts suitable for teenagers and children. 

Reading and Writing Poetry

This unit explores relations between reading and writing poetry. It focuses on reading and analysing a representative range of work by contemporary poets, and introduces you to relevant critical work. It equips you with critical, analytical and writing skills to read and write poetry effectively.

Representing Trauma

This unit is concerned with critical and creative conceptions, constructions and depictions of forms of violence and trauma, and introduces you to representations and theories of trauma drawn from multiple locations (temporal and geographic).


This unit looks at Shakespeare’s plays and poems in regard to both his contemporary intellectual, political and social meanings and effect, and the influence of his work on subsequent culture, in terms reception, adaptation, and reinvention.

Writing in Genres

The course will begin with an overview of the genres under consideration; thereafter students will have the opportunity to try their skills in three different genres in workshops dedicated to each specialism. The genres on offer may vary each year depending on staff, but might include three from e.g. historical fiction, crime fiction, fantasy writing and science fiction.In the first term, students will submit a portfolio of short pieces selected from their creative work in these genres. In the second term, students will concentrate on an extended piece of creative writing in their genre of choice. Both the portfolio and the extended piece will be accompanied by a critical reflection on the creative process.

Writing Series Drama

The unit concentrates on the composition of series, serials and continuing drama as opposed to the single play, in the context of critical awareness of contemporary dramatic writing. It reinforces and develops students’ pitching, storylining and scriptwriting skills. Students will study the historical development of episodic drama and professional writers’ responses to new technologies, including webcasting; key texts will illustrate a range of formats such as cop shows, comedy series, sci-fi, soaps, medical/hospital drama and explore the relationships between generic and ‘authored’ series. Students will devise the premise for a long-running drama to be pitched in class, and then work in teams to plot storylines over a number of episodes. In the light of feedback from tutor and peers, each student will then write her or his own individual version of the narrative framework for the group-devised story. Each writer will then script fifteen minutes of playing time of the devised storylines

As part of our drive to deliver the very highest quality programmes we are reviewing our undergraduate courses to ensure an up-to-date curriculum supported by the latest online learning technology. Some of the details given here may not yet reflect these improvements and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Typical entry requirements

UCAS Tariff points/Grades required

An English subject at GCE A Level is preferred, e.g. English Language, English Literature, English Language/Literature. Subjects such as Religious Education, History, Media Studies and General Studies will also be considered

Performing Arts, Production Arts or Creative Media Production are preferred from applicants studying BTEC qualifications

260-280 UCAS Tariff points from three A2s or acceptable alternatives.

Specific GCSE requirements

GCSE English Language Grade C

Non Tariffed Qualifications

A relevant Access to HE Diploma will be considered — units taken must include some element of literary or cultural study

International Baccalaureate points

IELTS score required for international students

6.0 with a minimum of at least 5.5 in all units

There’s further information for international students on our international website if you’re applying with non-UK qualifications.

Your career prospects after the course

Studying a combined honours degree gives you the opportunity to improve your employability by developing skills and knowledge in two subjects.

Language skills can be applied in a wide variety of careers, from teaching and translating/interpreting to business and management, finance, charity and community work.

Other opportunities may exist in areas such as journalism, in central and local government, international institutions, voluntary organisations, political parties or the media.

English graduates enter a wide range of employment, especially media work and teaching, where their transferable skills are particularly relevant.

Recent graduates have become school and college teachers, and gained employment in fields as diverse as banking and finance, manufacturing and retail.

There is also the opportunity to engage in further study and professional training, for example some of our graduates go on to study creative writing at postgraduate level in our Manchester Writing School under the creative direction of Poet Laureate Carol Ann Duffy.

However the opportunities for further study are diverse and some students have undertaken further professional training to work in law, public administration, management, and librarianship.

In 2014, over 94% of our graduates went directly into work or further study within 6 months of graduation

DHLE survey 2014, for all respondents available for employment or further study and whose destinations are known

How do I apply for this course?

Remember to use the correct institution code for Manchester Metropolitan University on your application: our institution code is M40

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