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Format Of Bibliography In Research Paper

Format Of Bibliography In Research Paper

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Creating an MLA paper with citations and a bibliography

Outline, MLA, format, citation, bibliography—there’s a lot to know when you write a research paper. Watch these videos to get tips and templates to organize and format papers fast.

Inside this course:

Using an MLA template (4:10)
Formatting papers in the MLA or APA style is tricky. Downloading a free template does some of the heavy lifting, automating some formatting.

Outlining and converting to text (3:09)
Using an outline can organize your paper, and you can do it automatically in the MLA style.

Inserting citations (2:30)
Creating citations and formatting quotes with these built in tools have several benefits, including…

Creating “Works Cited,” or bibliographies (2:59)
How the bibliography is built automcatlly if you use citations. No need to learn MLA formatting, since the template does the work.

Updating sources (0:45)
Managing or changing your sources once you’ve inputted them once.

Course summary
A brief reminder of the key points in this course.

How to Write a Research Paper

All your sources in one place

Write a Bibliography

A bibliography is a list of the sources you used to get information for your report. It is included at the end of your report, on the last page (or last few pages).

You will find it easier to prepare your final bibliography if you keep track of each book, encyclopedia, or article you use as you are reading and taking notes. Start a preliminary, or draft, bibliography by listing on a separate sheet of paper all your sources. Note down the full title, author, place of publication, publisher, and date of publication for each source.

Also, every time a fact gets recorded on a note card, its source should be noted in the top right corner. (Notice that in the sample note card. The World Book. Volume 2, page 21, has been shortened to: WB, 2, p.133.) When you are finished writing your paper, you can use the information on your note cards to double-check your bibliography.

When assembling a final bibliography, list your sources (texts, articles, interviews, and so on) in alphabetical order by authors’ last names. Sources that don’t have authors (encyclopedias, movies) should be alphabetized by title. There are different formats for bibliographies, so be sure to use the one your teacher prefers.

General Guide to Formatting a Bibliography

For a book:

Author (last name first). Title of the book. City: Publisher, Date of publication.

Dahl, Roald. The BFG. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1982.

For an encyclopedia:

Encyclopedia Title. Edition Date. Volume Number, «Article Title,» page numbers.

The Encyclopedia Britannica. 1997. Volume 7, «Gorillas,» pp. 50-51.

For a magazine:

Author (last name first), «Article Title.» Name of magazine. Volume number, (Date): page numbers.

Jordan, Jennifer, «Filming at the Top of the World.» Museum of Science Magazine. Volume 47, No. 1, (Winter 1998): p. 11.

For a newspaper:

Author (last name first), «Article Title.» Name of newspaper. city, state of publication. (date): edition if available, section, page number(s).

Powers, Ann, «New Tune for the Material Girl.» The New York Times. New York, NY. (3/1/98): Atlantic Region, Section 2, p. 34.

For a person:

Writing a Bibliography: MLA Format

Below are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the Modern Language Association (MLA). For more information on the MLA format, see http://www.mla.org/style_faq.

Basics

Your list of works cited should begin at the end of the paper on a new page with the centered title, Works Cited. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author’s last name, using the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) If the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An. or The.

For dates, spell out the names of months in the text of your paper, but abbreviate them in the list of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and be consistent. With the month-day-year style, be sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.

Underlining or Italics ?

When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had no way to print italics. If you write a bibliography by hand, you should still underline the names of publications. But, if you use a computer, then publication names should be in italics as they are below. Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.

Hanging Indentation

All MLA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the first line of an entry should be flush left, and the second and subsequent lines should be indented 1/2″.

Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation

The MLA guidelines specify using title case capitalization — capitalize the first words, the last words, and all principal words, including those that follow hyphens in compound terms. Use lowercase abbreviations to identify the parts of a work (e.g. vol. for volume. ed. for editor ) except when these designations follow a period. Whenever possible, use the appropriate abbreviated forms for the publisher’s name (Random instead of Random House ).

Separate author, title, and publication information with a period followed by one space. Use a colon and a space to separate a title from a subtitle. Include other kinds of punctuation only if it is part of the title. Use quotation marks to indicate the titles of short works appearing within larger works (e.g. «Memories of Childhood.» American Short Stories ). Also use quotation marks for titles of unpublished works and songs.

Format Examples

Books

Format:
Author’s last name, first name. Book title. Additional information. City of publication: Publishing company, publication date.

Allen, Thomas B. Vanishing Wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C. National Geographic Society, 1974.

Boorstin, Daniel J. The Creators: A History of the Heroes of the Imagination. New York: Random, 1992.

Hall, Donald, ed. The Oxford Book of American Literacy Anecdotes. New York: Oxford UP, 1981.

Searles, Baird, and Martin Last. A Reader’s Guide to Science Fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc. 1979.

Toomer, Jean. Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton, 1988.

Encyclopedia & Dictionary

Format:
Author’s last name, first name. «Title of Article.» Title of Encyclopedia. Date.

Note: If the dictionary or encyclopedia arranges articles alphabetically, you may omit volume and page numbers.

«Azimuthal Equidistant Projection.» Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. 10th ed. 1993.

Pettingill, Olin Sewall, Jr. «Falcon and Falconry.» World Book Encyclopedia. 1980.

Tobias, Richard. «Thurber, James.» Encyclopedia Americana. 1991 ed.

Levinson, David, and Melvin M. Ember, eds. Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. 4 vols. New York: Henry Holt, 1996. Print.

Magazine & Newspaper Articles

Format:
Author’s last name, first name. «Article title.» Periodical title Volume # Date: inclusive pages.

Note: If an edition is named on the masthead, add a comma after the date and specify the edition.

Hall, Trish. «IQ Scores Are Up, and Psychologists Wonder Why.» New York Times 24 Feb. 1998, late ed. F1+.

Kalette, Denise. «California Town Counts Down to Big Quake.» USA Today 9 21 July 1986: sec. A: 1.

Kanfer, Stefan. «Heard Any Good Books Lately?» Time 113 21 July 1986: 71-72.

Trillin, Calvin. «Culture Shopping.» New Yorker 15 Feb. 1993: 48-51.

Website or Webpage

Format:
Author’s last name, first name (if available). «Title of work within a project or database.» Title of site, project, or database. Editor (if available). Electronic publication information (Date of publication or of the latest update, and name of any sponsoring institution or organization). Date of access and <full URL>.

Note: If you cannot find some of this information, cite what is available.

Devitt, Terry. «Lightning injures four at music festival.» The Why? Files. 2 Aug. 2001. 23 Jan. 2002 <http://whyfiles.org /137lightning/index.html>.

Dove, Rita. «Lady Freedom among Us.» The Electronic Text Center. Ed. David Seaman. 1998. Alderman Lib. U of Virginia. 19 June 1998 <http://etext.lib.virginia.edu /subjects/afam.html>.

Lancashire, Ian. Homepage. 28 Mar. 2002. 15 May 2002 <http://www.chass.utoronto.ca:8080 /

Levy, Steven. «Great Minds, Great Ideas.» Newsweek 27 May 2002. 10 June 2002 <http://www.msnbc.com /news/754336.asp>.

Sample

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